Speech Chapter 12 Web Activities Aampes Biography Aampes Biography Website The Companion Site Aampes

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Homework Help
Book Title
Invitation to Public Speaking - National Geographic Edition 6th Edition
Cindy L. Griffin
Chapter Twelve: Informative Speaking
Chapter Goals
Chapter 12 introduces students to informative speaking and the different types of informative speeches.
As students reach the end of the chapter, they should be able to meet the following goals:
To describe the five types of informative speeches
Chapter Outline
I. Types of informative speeches (pgs. 230-232).
An informative speech communicates knowledge and understanding about a process, an event, a
place, or person.
Informative speaking environments are environments in which a speaker has expertise or
knowledge that an audience needs but doesn’t already have.
As you enter the public dialogue, you will give informative speeches frequently.
a. Speeches about processes, commonly called a how-to or a demonstration speech,
describe how something is done, how something comes to be what it is, or how something
i. Process speeches help an audience learn how to complete a task.
ii. They can help an audience understand how something develops over time.
iii. Process speeches can show an audience how to perform a process or how to
better understand a process.
iv. They are common because most people are constantly learning how to perform
new tasks.
v. Speakers are often asked or are required to give a speech about processes.
1. A boss may ask a speaker to explain to a colleague how to fill out and
submit an expense report.
vi. Process speeches are often organized chronologically.
b. Speeches about events describe or explain significant, interesting, or unusual
occurrences (pg. 232).
i. They help an audience understand what happened, why it happened, and what
effect it had.
c. Speeches about places and people describe significant, interesting, or unusual places
or people (pg. 233).
i. In a classroom, you can share your experiences with places and people you have
visited or have found fascinating.
d. Speeches about objects are speeches about anything that is tangible, that can be
perceived by the senses (pg. 233-234).
i. We can describe the components or characteristics of something so an audience
can better understand it and why it might be important or valued.
ii. They are common in the working world.
1. A product development coordinator might speak regularly to his or her
colleagues about new products.
3. Speeches about objects are organized topically, spatially, and sometimes
e. Speeches about concepts are about abstractions, things you can’t perceive with your
senses, such as ideas, theories, principles, worldviews, or beliefs (pg. 234).
i. The goal is to help your audience understand a concept, its history, its
II. Organizational patterns for informative speeches (pg. 236-239).
a. Chronological pattern can organize your main points to illustrate how a topic has
developed over time or what steps an audience must take to do some task.
i. It is the pattern stories use to describe developments over time.
ii. Chronological patterns are especially suited for process speeches although they
can be used for other types of informative speeches.
b. Spatial pattern allows you to address topics logically in terms of location or direction
(pg. 237).
i. With this pattern, you arrange main points by the position they represent within a
physical space.
c. Causal patterns highlight cause-and-effect relationships (pg. 238).
i. A cause is an event that makes something happen.
d. Topical pattern allows a speaker to address different aspects of a topic (pg. 238).
i. Topical patterns work well in informative speeches whose topics can be easily
and logically divided into subtopics.
III. Tips for giving effective informative speeches (pg. 239-242).
a. Bring your topic to life.
i. Effective informative speeches bring a subject to life for an audience, engaging
them so they appreciate the information they receive.
b. Stay audience centered (pg. 240).
i. A challenge to most public speakers is to decide how much information to
include in a speech and how much to leave out.
1. When too much information is presented, it can overwhelm the audience.
3. The best way to tailor your information is to stay audience centered
throughout the speech.
4. Continually reflect on the needs and interests of your audience.
a. Include information that might be most educational for your
c. Use language that is clear and unbiased (pg. 241).
i. Use language that is descriptive and instructive.
2. Break complicated processes into steps an audience can easily follow.
4. Explain familiar terms you use in new ways.
6. When you incorporate personal knowledge into an informative speech,
make sure your language reflects your experience, not your personal
biases or preferences.
IV. Ethical informative speaking (pg. 242).
a. Ethical informative speakers make sure their speeches are based on careful research.
i. Information should be accurate and complete.
End of Chapter Activities and Discussion Questions
The following questions can be found at the end of Chapter 12.
Review Questions and Activities
1. Consider the following as possible informative speaking topics for your next assigned speech:
Carpets Making pizza
How many different kinds of informative speeches can you give on each topic? What would be the
strengths or advantages of choosing one type of speech over another for these topics? How would your
speech be relevant to the public dialogue?
This can be a great activity to do in class in small groups or pairs of students because it encourages
2. Create a preparation outline for an informative speech on the topic of the U.S. response to natural
disasters. How many different organizational patterns could you use for this topic? How would each
pattern highlight a different aspect of this topic? How would you reduce the scope of your speech to
make it manageable for your public speaking course?
3. In groups or as a class, identify five or six of the most commonly used, but poorly defined, terms you
hear regularly. Use informative language to define those terms for your classmates. Some terms to
define might be
4. Select one of the topics from question 3 and write a specific purpose and thesis statement for a speech
about that topic. Next, choose your organizational pattern and develop the main points for this speech.
How might you bring this topic to life and manage the information you have about this topic so it is
relevant to the audience?
Web Activities
popular documentary television series. The site allows you to search for information about more than
25,000 people. Which of these people would be a good subject for a speech you give in class? Are there
any subjects you would avoid?
Interactive Student and Professional Speech Videos in MindTap
Video Clip 1: Student Speech, Shana Moellmer “The African Serval”
1. Watch Shana’s speech, and identify the organizational pattern she used for her informative speech.
Are her main points clearly structured? Is this the strongest organizational pattern she could have
used? Would you recommend a different pattern? Was her demonstration effective?
Additional Exercises and Resources
1. Animal Art
animal to life by using one of Fotoclipart’s images. Why do you think images like these might keep an
audience’s attention? Besides keeping an audience’s attention, what are some other advantages of using
images to illustrate your informative speech? What are some limitations to using images in a speech?
2. Evaluating a Process Speech
Purpose: To consider how processes can be clearly explained.
Directions: When you give a process speech, your audience must be able to follow your points easily.
To learn how to create a PowerPoint presentation for a kiosk, visit
the process of creating the presentation. If you have access to PowerPoint, try to complete the process
described. Can you? If you don’t have access to PowerPoint, do you think you could complete the task?
What additional information could the site provide? Does it provide too much information?
3. Describing the Race of a Lifetime
Purpose: To learn how examples can bring informative speeches about events to life.
site, think about how you would describe this race series to your class audience. Where possible, read
the stories of participants. How does it communicate the significance of the race to its participants? Is
the story vivid?
4. Critiquing Videos
Students have a much easier time grasping how the different components of a speech come together
when they can actually see a video clip. When you show the sample video clips that come with the
Invitation to Public Speaking textbook, have students follow along with a copy of the critique sheet
5. Handout: Selecting a Topic and Identifying the General Purpose, Specific Purpose, and Thesis
Statement for Informative Speeches
6. Informative Speech Assignments
There are a number of different ways you can assign an informative speech. Use the following three
ideas as models adapting them to your own classes as necessary. Each option is followed by a sample
A) A Basic Informative Speech
Define the different types of informative speeches and have students choose the type they
will use for their informative speech. With this assignment you will get a full range of
informative speeches. Students like this type of assignment because it gives them a lot of
Informative Speech
U.S. Flag Etiquette
by Cindy Gardner
Topic: The U.S. Flag
General Purpose: To inform
Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the rules and regulations for handling the U.S. flag.
Central Idea: The flag, a symbol of much that is great about this nation, should be hung, handled, and
folded in a specific manner.
I. “The flag is the symbol of our national endeavor, our aspiration, our unity. The flag tells of the
struggle for independence, of our union preserved, and of the sacrifices of brave men and women
to whom the ideals and honor have been dearer than life.” This is a quote from Charles Hughes, a
teacher of flag etiquette. (capture attention and reveal topic with a quote)
II. Today I would like to educate you on how to display the flag, some important rules to remember
when using the flag, and how to fold it. (internal preview)
I. When hanging a flag, it is important to remember its symbolism and significance and hang it in a
specific manner.
A. Each part of the flag has a specific meaning that symbolizes patriotic ideas.
1. The red stripes stand for blood and the fearless courage of those who
gave their lives for our country.
3. The blue field represents heaven and our courage.
1. When displaying the flag when it is not on a staff, place the union (blue field and
stars) at the uppermost left corner.
3. When flown with other flags, the U.S. flag is always the uppermost flag.
4. The biggest mistake people make when displaying the flag is positioning it to the
wrong side of a speaker.
Transition: I have given you tips on how to hang the flag, and now I would like to explain some rules
regarding its use.
II. Flag etiquette is more than just stories told from generation to generation.
A. The United States has developed a special code regarding its use: Title 36, Chapter 10.
Transition: Now that I have explained some rules regarding the flag, you might be wondering what to do
when you are done using it.
III. When putting the flag away, you fold it in such a way that each fold represents something.
(signposts used throughout this main point)
A. First, fold the flag in half from bottom to top to represent life.
B. Second, fold it in half again to symbolize eternal life.
C. Third, begin folding the flag in a triangle in remembrance of our veterans.
D. The fourth fold represents out trust in God.
M. Lastly, the flag is tucked in to show four stars remaining of the front, symbolizing the
motto “In God we trust.”
I. I hope you have found some valuable information in my speech. (internal summary)
A. When we look at the flag, it is important to remember the rules regarding it and why they
are there.
B. The flag stands for something different to every person and so is to be respected.
II. Today I talked about how to display the flag, the rules regarding its use, and how to fold it.
III. I would like to end with a quote from the poem My Name Is Old Glory: “But my finest hour
comes when I am torn into strips to be used [as] bandages for my wounded comrades on the field
of battle, and when I lie in the trembling arms of a grieving mother at the grave site of her fallen
son [or daughter].”
Works Cited
Butchko, Angela. The Foundation of the United States Air Force. New York: U.S. Government Printing
Office, 1999.
option for an informative speech about a place. You can also assign this speech even if
you are not having students participate in service learning, but do want them to give
speeches about local, national, or international nonprofit agencies.
Speech Assignment: An informative speech about a health and human service agency in
your community, a national service agency, or an international agency.
Time: 5 to 7 minutes.
Informative Speech
Planned Parenthood
Topic: Planned Parenthood
General Purpose: To inform
Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about services provided at Planned Parenthood.
Central Idea: In order to have an understanding of the services provided at Planned Parenthood my
audience needs to first understand the myths associated with this agency, then have an understanding of the
family planning and birth control services, and the testing and treatment done for sexually transmitted
I. Two years ago, I found out that my ex-husband had been cheating on me over the year that we
had been married.
A. I lived with the fear that he had given me AIDS.
2. I went to a place where I received the help and compassion I needed during that
II. I want to tell you about Planned Parenthood Federation of America because they can help you,
III. I have been a patient there for three years, and have experienced their services first hand.
IV. They offer many different services at reasonable prices, of which I will focus on three.
A. First, I will give some background information about Planned Parenthood that will help
dispel some misconceptions.
B. Second, I will tell you about their family planning and birth control services.
C. Lastly, I will tell you about sexually transmitted disease testing and treatment.
I. In a recent interview with John Legman, a pro-life advocate, I learned that the misconception of
Planned Parenthood is that it is only an abortion clinic.
A. It is possible to be pro-life and still take advantage of other services without
compromising your beliefs.
1. Planned Parenthood offers many different services, depending on their patients
B. Planned Parenthoods mission, accessed from their website
(www.plannedparenthood.org) reflects their openness to all.
1. They believe that it is each individual’s right to manage his or her fertility.
a. Within this right is the right to privacy and respect.
3. Planned Parenthood provides high quality affordable reproductive health care to
men and women in 875 local health centers across the country.
[I have experienced their dedication to their mission statement. Let me now tell you about the services
they offer.]
II. Family planning and birth control often go hand-in-hand.
A. Family planning is a way for women and men to plan out how and when they want to
have their family develop.
1. One method is by using birth control devices, such as oral contraceptives, barrier
methods, and internal methods.
(1) Planned Parenthood will talk with you about your lifestyle,
(2) Many of the methods are offered through Planned Parenthood at
a reasonable price.
2. Another method of birth control they inform their patients about is Natural
Family planning.
3. Planned Parenthood is also equipped to assist you with yearly gynecological
screenings to ensure that your method is right for you.
[This now leads me into the last service I want to inform you about.]
III. The last service is sexually transmitted disease testing and treatment.
A. There are 15 million new cases of STD’s diagnosed each year in the United States.
2. A dear friend of mine (who wants to remain anonymous) was diagnosed with
Human Papillomavirus about seven years ago.
B. Any test for any STD is available from Planned Parenthood, at no risk to you.
1. Confidentiality and respect is foremost on their mind.
3. All tests and results are confidential and are offered at a reasonable price.
4. If you do test positive for anything, do notify your primary care physician, but
Planned Parenthood can treat you just as easily.
I. I have told you only a piece in a large pie of what is Planned Parenthood.
A. You know the standard this agency holds itself to.
II. If you have further questions or concerns, please contact our local Planned Parenthood.
III. I leave you with a quote: “In many communities around the world, Planned Parenthood is the
only source of affordable, quality reproductive health care services and information . . .”
Works Cited
Kippley, John F., and Sheila K. Kippley. The Art of Natural Family Planning. 4th ed. Ohio: Couple to
Couple League, 1996.
Kippley, John F. The Legacy of Margaret Sanger. Ohio, 1998.
Informative Topic Choices
Name __________________________
Refer to Chapter 3 of your text to help you.
Topic Choice #1
General Purpose:
Specific Purpose:
Thesis Statement:
Main Points:
Topic Choice #2
General Purpose:
Specific Purpose:
Thesis statement:
Main Points:
Supplemental Bibliography
Anholt, Robert R. H. Dazzle ‘em with Style: The Art of Oral Scientific Presentation. New York: W.H.
Freeman and Company, 1994.
A practical guide to informative speaking that covers preparation and structure of the
Davis, Martha. Scientific Papers and Presentations. New York: Academic Press, 1997.
Forbes, Mark. Writing Technical Articles, Speeches, and Manuals. New York: Wiley, 1988.
Morrisey, George L., Sechrest, Thomas L, and Warman, Wendy B., Loud and Clear: How to Prepare
and Deliver Effective Business and Technical Presentations, 4th ed. Reading, MA.: Addison-
Wesley Publishing, 1997.
This text addresses considerations for informative presentations including identifying your
Rowan, Katherine E. “A New Pedagogy for Explanatory Speaking: Why Arrangement Should Not
Substitute for Invention.” Communication Education, 44 (1995), 236-250.
Rowan highlights the importance of invention during the creation of the informative speech. An

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