Three wooden planks are fastened together by a series of bolts to form
a column. The diameter of each bolt is 12 mm and the inner diameter
of each washer is 16 mm, which is slightly larger than the diameter of
the holes in the planks. Determine the smallest allowable outer
diameter d of the washers, knowing that the average normal stress in
the bolts is 36 MPa and that the bearing stress between the washers
and the planks must not exceed 8.5 MPa.