a. Since public approval has become much more important to modern presidents, most
presidents rely on the mandate and the polls to measure their popularity and increase
their approval ratings.
b. The presidential mandate claimed by modern presidents makes it easier for them to
get their choices of Supreme Court justices approved than in the past.
c. Because Congress sees the president as holding a mandate of the people, the
legislators do not block the president's agenda as vehemently as legislators in the past
d. The president's mandate consists of the modern perception among members of
Congress that, by virtue of having been elected, the president has the ability to manage
e. Because modern presidents are more dependent on the people for election and more
involved in policy making than early presidents, they are prone to claim the mandate of
the people when governing.
Convicted criminals whose sentences increase during their prison term due to a change
in the law have been illegally subjected to what kind of law?
a. cruel and unusual
b. habeas corpus
c. ex post facto
d. bill of attainder
e. writ of certiorari