Chapter 7 The Main Role Glucocorticoids Enhance Sodium Reuptake

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Animal Physiology: From Genes to Organisms 2nd Edition
Hillar Klandorf, Lauralee Sherwood, Paul Yancey
Endocrine Systems
A. Multiple Choice
a. stimulate the central nervous system.
b. trigger cellular development.
c. stimulate endocrine tissue to secrete hormones.
d. stimulate growth and development.
a. Each endocrine gland secretes a single type of hormone.
b. Each endocrine hormone is secreted by a single endocrine tissue.
c. Each endocrine hormone acts on a single target tissue.
d. Each endocrine hormone activates a single type of receptor.
e. Many endocrine tissues have other non-endocrine functions.
a. are lipophilic.
b. may be converted into other hormones.
c. are derived from cholesterol.
d. are synthesized in steroidogenic cells and organs.
e. all of these.
a. the site of synthesis of steroids is distinct from their site of release.
b. the former are not stored, but instead are released upon synthesis.
c. the former are synthesized ubiquitously.
d. they don't have a specific receptor protein with which they interact.
e. none of these.
a. may often mimic the effects of estrogen.
b. are human made substances
c. can be passed from one generation to the next.
d. only two of these.
e. all of these..
a. cell motility.
b. cilia action.
c. secretion by exocytosis.
d. muscle contraction.
e. all of these.
a. refers to the expression of fewer receptors at the cell surface as part of a
negative-feedback mechanism.
b. refers to the decrease in cortisol secretion that occurs as an animal's
metabolism slows down to its basal level.
c. occurs in response to too little hormone reaching the target cells.
d. is an idiopathic response to endocrine disrupters.
e. occurs in response to the excretion of excess hormone by the kidneys.
a. one hormone enhancing the responsiveness of a target cell to another
b. the combined action of several hormones acting complementary to one
c. the expression of receptors by a cell allowing it to respond to a hormone.
d. the increase in receptor number that occurs on the surface of a target cell
during hyposecretionof a hormone .
e. none of these.
a. Calcium can be stored in the body and sodium cannot.
b. Parathyroid hormone is the primary hormone responsible for
maintaining calcium homeostasis.
c. Calcitonin is not essential for routine maintenance of calcium
concentration in mammals.
d. Calcium is required for normal blood clotting.
e. All of these are true statements.
a. melatonin.
b. melanin.
c. melanocyte stimulating hormone.
d. estradiol.
e. melanopsin.
hormone (MSH)?
a. camouflage
b. immune suppression
c. pelage of feathers
d. appetite control
e. All of these are normal functions.
response to input from hypothalamic osmoreceptors which were activated by
a. increased levels of osmium in the blood.
b. softening of the cervical os (the outlet of the uterus).
c. increased plasma osmolarity.
d. increased blood volume.
e. increased blood pressure.
different processes. Which of the following AVT-stimulated events does NOT
involve smooth muscle contraction?
a. vasoconstriction
b. ejection of milk from mammary glands.
c. oviposition
d. birth in viviparous snakes.
e. All of these involve smooth muscle contraction.
produce milk.
a. prolactin
b. oxytocin
c. luteinizing hormone
d. growth hormone
e. none of these.
a. liver
b. pituitary
c. hypothalamus
d. liver, pituitary, and hypothalamus
e. pituitary and hypothalamus
function in a stress response, it functions in negative feedback by
a. inhibiting the hypothalamus so that corticotropin releasing hormone
(CRH) secretion is reduced.
b. reduces the secretion of ACTH by the anterior pituitary.
c. suppressing its own secretion by its actions on the hypothalamus and
anterior pituitary.
d. all of these.
d. none of these.
a. stimulating cell division.
b. elevating blood glucose levels.
c. elevating glycogen breakdown by muscles.
d. promoting glucose uptake by muscles.
e. all of these except promoting glucose uptake by muscles.
a. somatomedins.
b. peptide hormones.
c. endocrine hormones.
d. all of these.
e. none of these.
a. parathyroid hormone.
b. thyroid hormone.
c. calcitonin.
d. phosphate concentration in the blood.
e. Vitamin C levels in the blood.
synthesis. This is due to the fact that
a. thyroid hormones are not membrane-permeant molecules.
b. thyroid hormones are protein hormones, and are stored in vesicles until
an elevation in intracellular calcium stimulates their release.
c. thyroid hormones are sequestered in colloid, surrounded by a wall of
follicular cells, and that presents too much of a barrier for the hormones
to pass through.
d. thyroid hormones remain attached to a larger protein molecule until the
thyroid is stimulated to secrete them, at which point they are cleaved
from the protein and diffuse from the cell into the circulation.
e. None of the above is correct.
a. peptide hormones and secretory granules
b. steroids and lipid droplets
c. Catecholamines and adrenal cortex
d. peptide hormones and rough endoplasmic reticulum
e. thyroid hormones and lipophilic molecules
a. increased basal metabolic rate
b. increased conversion of glycogen to glucose
c. increased conversion of glucose to glycogen
d. increased expression of catecholamine target-cell receptors
e. all of these.
a. thyroid hormone.
b. thyroid stimulating hormone.
c. thyroid releasing hormone.
d. thyrotropin stimulating hormone.
e. thyrotropin releasing hormone.
a. a deficiency in thyrotropin releasing hormone.
b. a deficiency in thyroid stimulating hormone.
c. insufficient amounts of iodine in the diet.
d. all of these.
a. inability to tolerate heat.
b. excessive perspiration.
c. anxiety.
d. weakness.
e. all of these.
adrenal gland.
a. zona glomerulosa
b. zona fasciculata
c. zona reticularis
d. adrenal medulla
e. chromaffin cells
a. is a response to external clues.
b. occurs in diurnal animals.
c. is influence by endogenous oscillators.
d. two of these.
e. all of these.
a. enhance sodium reuptake from the urine.
b. elevate glucose levels in the blood.
c. enhance the elimination of sugars in the urine.
d. enhance the reuptake of sugar from tubular fluids in the kidney.
e. none of these.
which illustrates the folly of cramming for exams, especially during all-nighters!
a. increased growth of facial hair
b. increased water retention.
c. memory loss
d. fatigue
e. none of these.
physiological significance in females is
a. testosterone (TST).
b. dihydroxytestosterone (DHT).
c. estrogen (EST).
d. dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
e. thalidomide.
called chromaffin cells which store norepinephrine and epinephrine in chromaffin
granules. In this situation, when these chemical transmitters are released they act
a. neurohormones.
b. neurotransmitters.
c. stress inducers.
d. glucocorticoids.
e. mineralocorticoids.
a. have a generalized vasoconstrictor effect.
b. promote vasodilation of blood vessels supply muscles.
c. promote mobilization of stored carbohydrates.
d. dilate respiratory airways.
e. none of these.
stress response. However, cortisol and NOT epinephrine
a. causes an elevation in glucose in the blood.
b. causes an increase in fatty acids in the blood.
c. causes an increase in amino acids in the blood.
d. causes a decrease in glucose in the blood.
e. causes a mobilization of carbohydrates.
a. produce crustecydsone
b. produce chromatophorotropins for changing cuticle color.
c. hyperglycemic hormone to regulate glucose levels.
d. all of these.
e. none of these.
a. Glial cells
b. Liver cells
c. Muscle cells
d. All of these.
e. None of these.
a. secreting ketone bodies in response to excess plasma glucose levels
b. storing glycogen when excess glucose is available
c. releasing glucose when plasma glucose levels drop
d. converting organic chemicals like amino acids into glucose via
e. All of these are functions of the liver relating to glucose homeostasis.
a. absorptive phase of metabolism in which recently ingested glucose is
saved in the form of glycogen for future use.
b. postabsorptive phase of metabolism in which glucose ingested earlier is
saved in the form of glycogen for use during prolonged fasting.
c. postabsorptive phase of metabolism in which numerous body tissues
release glucose for immediate use by the brain.
d. postabsorptive phase of metabolism in which numerous body tissues
switch to metabolizing alternative, non-glucose energy sources, so that
glucose remains available for the brain.
a. promoting reduced growth of the body, decreasing the need of individual
cells for glucose, and thereby promoting glucose sparing.
b. inhibiting digestion and absorption of nutrients, preventing
c. inhibiting secretion of prolactin, reducing production of lactose for milk,
and preventing hypoglycemia.
d. doing all of these.
e. doing none of these.
a. penetrating the cellular membranes itself, and thereby providing a
pathway for glucose to enter the cells.
b. activating insulin receptors, which are themselves glucose transporters.
c. stimulating the recruitment of glucose transporters to the membrane,
which in turn facilitate the import of glucose.
d. activating the transcription and translation of glucose transporter-genes,
increasing their expression.
e. altering the ratio of intracellular sodium concentrations to extracellular
sodium concentrations in a way that favors co-transport of glucose and
a. parasympathetic stimulation.
b. sympathetic stimulation.
c. low levels of plasma glucose.
d. low levels of plasma amino acids.
e. all of these.
B. True and Flase
332 level of calcium intake, egg-laying birds may replace all of their medullary bone
to meet that demand.
275 known to bind nuclear receptors.
283 24 hours.
C. Matching (correct answers are aligned with each number; e.g., #1 matches with letter a)
D. Essay
Page No.
of fats yields about 9 kcal/gram. Assuming a healthy adult requires 1500 kcal/day
to function, how many grams of fat does a typical, healthy adult have? How
much glycogen would a person have to store to have a comparable energy
supply, assuming a caloric yield of 4 kcal/gram?
* 2. In systems geared toward maintaining homeostasis, there is generally some
parameter that is monitored by a sensor which responds to deviations from a set
point by stimulating a response from an effector system that in turn causes an
adjustment to the parameter. Give an example from the endocrine system of
homeostatic control. Be sure to identify the sensor(s), parameter(s) and effector(s)
and how they interact to maintain homeostasis. If negative feedback is involved,
describe that aspect as well.
* The answer to this question could be drawn from multiple points in the chapter.
pharmacologically tractable? Why?
vitamin D in controlling plasma calcium levels. Be sure to include the directional
change in calcium levels, the organs involved, and where the hormone and
vitamin D are having their effects.
phosphate levels are too high and where they are too low. Be sure to include
such things as the hormones involved, organs involved, and the direction of
change in phosphate levels

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