Chapter 14 1 Joints Are Fractures Rock That Occur Without

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography 9th Edition
Authors
Robert W. Christopherson
Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography, 9e (Christopherson)
Chapter 14 Weathering, Karst Landscapes, and Mass Movement
14.1 Multiple Choice Questions
1) The science that specifically studies the origin, evolution, form, and spatial distribution of
landforms is
A) geology.
B) geography.
C) geomorphology.
D) environmental chemistry.
2) All processes that cause reduction and rearrangement of landforms are included in the term
A) mass movement.
B) erosion.
C) weathering.
D) denudation.
3) The dynamic equilibrium model refers to
A) a balancing act between tectonic uplift and rates of denudation by weathering and erosion in a
given landscape.
B) a theory involving the cyclic or evolutionary development of a landscape.
C) a sequential development of landforms.
D) an important concept first stated by William Morris Davis.
4) The convex upper portion of a typical slope is called a
A) pediment.
B) debris slope.
C) waxing slope.
D) free face.
5) The concave lower portion of a typical slope is called a
A) waning slope.
B) pediment.
C) debris slope.
D) free face.
6) Which of the following is not a denudation process?
A) weathering
B) erosion
C) orogeny
D) mass movement
7) The uplift of mountains is caused by
A) endogenic processes.
B) aggradation.
C) denudation.
D) exogenic forces.
8) If Earth did not experience endogenic processes, the landscape would
A) be rugged and of great relief as a result of uplift in the absence of weathering and erosion.
B) consist of high mountains and hills with smooth, gentle slopes.
C) be of very low relief as a result of weathering and erosion in the absence of uplift.
9) Which of the following is not exogenic in nature?
A) weathering
B) erosion
C) denudation
D) tectonic uplift
E) mass wasting
10) The principle that landscape formation is balance between endogenic and exogenic processes
is called
A) the dynamic equilibrium model.
B) uniformitarianism.
C) catostrophism.
D) steady state theory.
11) After a threshold is crossed, the landscape
A) remains unstable thereafter.
B) adjusts to a new equilibrium condition.
C) looks identical to the landscape that existed prior to the crossing of the threshold.
D) returns to the conditions that existed prior to the crossing the threshold.
12) If material is to move downslope, it must overcome the force of
A) friction.
B) the cohesion of particles to each other.
C) inertial resistance of the material.
D) friction, cohesion of particles, and intertial resistance.
13) Inclined surfaces that form the boundaries of landforms are known as
A) catchment.
B) slopes.
C) free face.
D) regolith.
14) Which portions of a slope overlap substantially?
A) waxing slope and waning slope
B) waxing slope and free face
C) free face and debris slope
D) debris slope and waning slope
15) ________ is a steep scarp or cliff whose presence indicates an outcrop of resistant rock.
A) Waning slope
B) Waxing slope
C) Debris slope
D) Free face
16) A slope is ________ if its strength exceed denundation processes and ________ if its
materials are weaker than denunadation processes.
A) stable; unstable
B) unstable; stable
C) in equilibrium; in disequilibrium
D) in disequilibrium; in equilibrium
17) Because the climate of a region slowly changes and tectonic adjustments slowly occur, the
landscape
A) is constantly at a threshold condition.
B) is continuously adjusting to new conditions that develop.
C) is usually in a state of dynamic equilibrium.
D) is constantly at a threshold, continuously adjusting, and in a state of dynamic equilibrium.
E) is continuously adjusting, and in a state of dynamic equilibrium, but not constantly at a
threshold.
18) The process that breaks down rock at the Earth's surface through disintegration of rocks into
mineral particles or dissolving it into water is known as
A) erosion.
B) mass movement.
C) landmass denudation.
D) weathering.
19) The consolidated or unconsolidated materials from which soils develop is known as
A) bedrock.
B) regolith.
C) parent material.
D) outcrop.
20) On a typical hillside, the consolidated rock overlain by loose surface material is known as
A) bedrock.
B) regolith.
C) parent material.
D) outcrop.
21) When the upper surface of consolidated rock undergoes constant weathering, it creates
broken-up rock called
A) bedrock.
B) regolith.
C) parent material.
D) outcrop.
22) In most areas, the upper surface of bedrock is partially weathered to broken-up rock called
A) parent rock.
B) bedrock.
C) sediment.
D) regolith.
23) When rock is broken down and disintegrated without any chemical alterations, the process in
operation is
A) physical weathering.
B) chemical weathering.
C) hydrolysis.
D) carbonation.
24) Which of the following is not a type of physical weathering process?
A) exfoliation
B) hydrolysis
C) salt crystal growth
D) frost wedging
25) When rock is broken down and disintegrated in the presence of water and with chemical
alterations to the rock, the process in operation is
A) physical weathering.
B) chemical weathering.
C) hydrolysis.
D) carbonation.
26) Factors influencing the weathering process include
A) the climate of an area.
B) rock composition and structure.
C) the amount of vegetation in an area.
D) rock composition and structure, climate, and vegetation.
E) only the climate of an area and rock composition.
27) Which of the following is correct regarding joints?
A) Joints are small, localized fault planes along which movement occurs.
B) Joint impede both physical and chemical weathering.
C) Joints decrease the amount of exposed surface area of rocks.
D) Joints are fractures in rock that occur without displacement on either side.
28) The fact that water expands as much as 9% of its volume as it freezes is the basis of
A) oxidization.
B) exfoliation.
C) salt crystal growth.
D) frost wedging.
29) Frost wedging is an example of ________ weathering processes.
A) chemical
B) physical
C) biological
D) both biological and chemical
30)
The weathering process responsible for breaking this marble is likely
A) exfoliation.
B) carbonation.
C) frost wedging.
D) salt-crystal growth.
31) Salt-crystal growth (salt weathering) is prevalent in which climate type?
A) mesothermal
B) tropical
C) arid
D) polar
32)
A niche in sandstone, such as that in Arizona's Canyon de Chelly, is indicative of which
weathering process?
A) exfoliation
B) carbonation
C) frost wedging
D) salt-crystal growth
33) Many of the Native American dwellings at Mesa Verde and elsewhere in the western United
States are located under overhangs that form along the contact between permeable and
impermeable rock layers. These overhangs (niches) were primarily created by what process?
A) exfoliation
B) salt-crystal growth
C) hydrolysis
D) frost wedging
E) carbonic acid solution
34) Salt-crystal growth (salt weathering) is an example of ________ weathering processes.
A) chemical
B) physical
C) biological
D) both biological and physical
35) When pressure is removed from overlying rock, the pressure of deep burial is relieved,
initiating pressure-release jointing. The joints then separate into curved slabs. This is known as
A) exfoliation.
B) frost wedging.
C) salt crystal growth.
D) spheroidal weathering.
36) Exfoliation and pressure-release jointing are examples of ________ weathering processes.
A) chemical
B) physical
C) biological
D) both biological and physical
37) Exfoliation occurs because
A) water combines with minerals and increases their size, thereby causing surrounding minerals
to expand.
B) water freezes in joints and expands.
C) overlying rock is removed, thereby allowing the underlying rock mass to expand and fracture.
D) evaporated water leaves behind previously dissolved mineral to form crystals, which
accumulate and grow over time, exerting pressure on the rock.
38) Chemical weathering is greatest under conditions of
A) higher rainfall and temperatures.
B) lower rainfall and temperatures.
C) higher rainfall, but lower temperatures.
D) lower rainfall, but higher temperatures.
39) In which climates would rocks experience the highest amounts of chemical decomposition
and decay?
A) cold and wet
B) cold and dry
C) hot and wet
D) hot and dry
40) Other than the rock itself, the most important chemical substance needed for the majority of
weathering processes is
A) oxygen.
B) nitrogen.
C) water.
D) carbon dioxide.
41) Weathering that softens and rounds the sharp edges and corners of jointed rock is known as
A) spheroidal weathering.
B) exfoliation.
C) hydration.
D) hydrolis.
42)
These rounded granite outcrops are the result of which weathering process?
A) oxidation
B) hydration
C) spheroidal weathering
D) carbonation
43) Hydration involves
A) the chemical reaction of water.
B) the addition of water with little chemical change.
C) frost action.
D) salt crystal growth from evaporation.
44) Hydrolis involves
A) the chemical reaction of water.
B) the addition of water with little chemical change.
C) frost action.
D) salt crystal growth from evaporation.
45) Which of the following weathering processes does not involve water?
A) hydration
B) hydrolysis
C) crystallization
D) carbonation
E) pressure-release jointing
46) Rust, formed by the reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water, is an example of
A) hydration.
B) frost wedging.
C) carbonation.
D) oxidation.
47) Which of the following are the principal active agents involved in chemical weathering?
A) oxygen, silicon, aluminum
B) magnesium, water, limestone
C) water, oxygen, carbon dioxide
D) nitrogen, oxygen, argon
48) When rainwater attacks formations of limestone, the minerals dissolve and wash away with
the mildly acid rainwater. This is an example of
A) oxidation.
B) crystallization.
C) frost action.
D) carbonation.
49) When rainwater attacks formations of limestone, the minerals dissolve and wash away with
the mildly acid rainwater. This is an example of
A) oxidation.
B) crystallization.
C) frost action.
D) carbonation.
50) Hydrolis, hydration, oxidation, and carbonation are all examples of ________ weathering
processes.
A) physical
B) chemical
C) biological
D) physical and biological
51) The yellow-red stains that occur on some rock surfaces are the result of ________ which is a
form of ________ weathering.
A) hydration; physical
B) hydration; chemical
C) solution; chemical
D) oxidation; physical
E) oxidation; chemical
52) Chemical weathering processes are particularly effective on limestone landscapes, forming
A) karst topography.
B) hydrolysis plains.
C) pressure-release jointing.
D) exfoliation domes and arch-like forms.
53) The weathering of limestone can create circular depressions known as
A) uvalas.
B) stalactites.
C) sinkholes.
D) caverns.
54) A sinkhole that develops over a period of hours or days and forms from a collapse through
the roof of an underground cavern is known as a
A) solution sinkhole.
B) collapse sinkhole.
C) doline.
D) karst valley.

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