Chapter 11 1 When Does Appear Plant Material Indicative Climate anomalies

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography 9th Edition
Authors
Robert W. Christopherson
Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography, 9e (Christopherson)
Chapter 11 Climate Change
11.1 Multiple Choice Questions
1) The interdisciplinary study of the causes and consequences of changing climate for all Earth
systems and the sustainability of human societies is
A) climate change science.
B) meteorology.
C) paleoclimatology.
D) climate policy.
2) The three key elements of climate change science include the following except
A) study of past climates.
B) measurement of current climatic change.
C) establishing policy on CO2 emissions.
D) projection of future climate scenarios.
3) The primary anthropogenic source of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is
A) clearing and burning land.
B) rice farming.
C) respiration.
D) burning of fossil fuels.
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4)
Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentrations over the past 800,000 years
A) have remained relatively constant.
B) were much higher in the past than the present.
C) fluctuated over time, but have been increasing since the Industrial Revolution.
D) reached its maximum about 325,000 years before present.
5) The majority of human population growth is now occurring in
A) less-developed countries (LDCs).
B) more-developed countries (MDCs).
C) evenly between LDCs and MDCs.
D) neither LDCs or MDCs; world populations are declining.
6) Per capita emissions of total greenhouse gases are highest in
A) less-developed countries (LDCs).
B) more-developed countries (MDCs).
C) neither LDCs and MDCs; they are approximately equal.
D) non-populated areas since greatest emissions associated with volcanic eruptions.
7) Seasonal fluctuations in CO2 emissions reflect
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A) increased fuel use for home and building heat in winter months.
B) seasonal changes in vegetation cover in the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.
C) geothermal activity, which is highest in the fall.
D) summer melting in the tundra.
8) The ________ is a graph which plots monthly averages of CO2 concentrations since 1958.
A) PETM
B) Younger Dryas
C) Keeling Curve
D) MCA
9) According to readings from the Mauna Loa Observatory, CO2
concentrations in May 2013
exceeded ________ for the first time during the last 800,000 years.
A) 100-ppm
B) 200-ppm
C) 300-ppm
D) 400-ppm
10) The science that studies the Earth's past climates is
A) climate change science.
B) meteorology.
C) paleoclimatology.
D) dendrochronology.
11) Scientists use ________ to study past climates, using ________ to reconstruct climates that
extend back further than our present instrumentation allows.
A) proxy methods; climate proxies
B) direct measurements; historical records
C) indirect evidence; conjecture
D) computer models; algorithms
12) The 16O evaporates ________ easily than 18O, and condenses ________ easily.
A) less; more
B) less; less
C) more; less
D) more; more
13) A lower 18O/16O ratio in ocean sediment cores indicates a ________ climate, whereas a
higher 18O/16O ratio indicates a ________ climate.
A) cooler; warmer
B) warmer; cooler
C) cooler; cold
D) warmer; hot
14) Ocean sediment cores provide a climate record for the past ________ years.
A) 800,000
B) 2 million
C) 10 million
D) 70 million
15) Ice cores provide a climate record for the past ________ years.
A) 800,000
B) 2 million
C) 10 million
D) 70 million
16) A lower 18O/16O ratio in ice core indicates a ________ climate, whereas a higher 18O/16O
ratio indicates a ________ climate.
A) cooler; warmer
B) warmer; cooler
C) cooler; cold
D) warmer; hot
17) A higher 18O/16O ratio in ocean sediment cores indicates a ________ climate, and a higher
18O/16O ratio in ice cores indicates a ________ climate.
A) cooler; warmer
B) warmer; cooler
C) cooler; cooler
D) warmer; warmer
18)
Over the span of 70 million years, the Earth's climate
A) was much warmer in the distant past than the present.
B) was much cooler in the distant past than the present.
C) has remained fairly constant, only showing a warming trend during the past 200 years.
D) was warmest approximately 10 million years ago and coolest about 56 million years ago.
19) The rapid warming associated with the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) likely
resulted from
A) several massive volcanic eruptions.
B) the sudden die off of photosynthetic organisms and associated increase in atmospheric CO2.
C) a sudden (geologically speaking) increase in atmospheric carbon.
D) decreased surface albedo brought about by Paleocene afforestation.
20) The last interglacial period with temperatures similar to the present interglacial period was
the
A) Eemian interglacial.
B) Holstein interglacial.
C) Günz-Mindel interglacial.
D) Flandrian interglacial.
21) Which of the following is not an example of methods used for short-term climate
reconstructions?
A) dendrochronology
B) ocean sediment core analysis
C) carbon isotope analysis
D) speleothems analysis
22) Radiocarbon dating of organic material may provide a climate record for up to ________
years before present.
A) 10,000
B) 25,000
C) 50,000
D) 75,000
23) Mineral deposits with caves and caverns are known as
A) earlywood.
B) latewood.
C) varves.
D) speleothems.
24) In which of the following ways is the study of tree rings, speleothems, and corals for
understanding past climatic conditions similar?
A) All are composed of organic materials and are therefore good candidates for radiocarbon
dating.
B) Each have growth bands, yielding evidence of the conditions under which they formed and
grew.
C) The chronology each can provide only dates back to a maximum of 5,000 years and are,
therefore, only useful for relatively recent climatic trends.
D) The fossilized form of each is used for understanding past climatic conditions.
25) The________ is the most recent epoch of repeated glaciation on the Earth.
A) Holocene
B) Pleistocene
C) Pliocene
D) Miocene
26) The last glacial maximum (LGM) occurred approximately ________ years ago.
A) 10,000
B) 20,000
C) 50,000
D) 110,000
27) The Younger Dryas refers to a(n)
A) interglacial period, characterized by a general warming trend, lasting since the last glacial
maximum (LGM) to the present.
B) brief return to near-glacial conditions during the transition period from the last glacial period
to the present interglacial period.
C) 400 year, from A.D. 800 to 1200, period characterized by warmer than normal conditions in
the North Atlantic region (e.g. Greenland and Iceland).
D) global cooling episode, lasting from approximately A.D. 1250 to 1850.
28) Since the Industrial Revolution
A) human population growth rates have decreased with a subsequent decrease in the warming
trend that characterized pre-Industrial Revolution times.
B) global temperatures rapidly increased, then steadied out over the past 25 to 30 years.
C) global temperatures have continued to warm at accelerating rates.
D) no observable warming or cooling trends have occurred, rather temperatures have oscillated
between warm and cold periods.
29) Which of the following accurately describes 18O/16O ratios of the worlds oceans?
A) Because 18O evaporates more readily than 16O, the oceans have a higher relative abundance
of 16O during warm periods and a more balanced ratio when there is less evaporation.
B) The higher the ratio of oceanic 18O/16O, the warmer the temperatures because the 16O will
have been mostly evaporated from ocean waters.
C) During periods of colder temperature 16O is locked up in snow and ice and the oceans have a
higher preponderance of 18O; during warmer periods the isotope ratio is lower.
D) The 18O/16O ratio is low during colder temperatures because temperatures are too low for
evaporation to be effective and both isotopes remain in the ocean.
30) Which of the following accurately describes 18O/16O ratios of ice sheets?
A) During warmer periods, 18O evaporates more readily and therefore the 18O/16O ratio is
higher.
B) The higher the ratio of ice core 18O/16O, the cooler there temperatures because the 18O will
be locked up in ice sheets.
C) During periods of colder temperature, the 18O/16O ratio is higher because only the 18O
isotope is being evaporated.
D) During warmer periods, 16O evaporates more readily and therefore the 18O/16O ratio is
significantly lower than colder periods.
31) Which of the following accurately describes 13C/12C ratios of plant materials and their use
in climate reconstructions?
A) 13C is an unstable isotope, which decays at a constant rate. This is used to date plant material,
which can then be used as a proxy for temperature and climate conditions at that time.
B) Different plants use different types of photosynthesis, each producing a different carbon
isotope ratio in plant materials, which scientists use to determine past temperature and rainfall
conditions.
C) By analyzing the ratio of 13C/12C in marine phyyoplsnkyon, the source of the water in which
the organisms resided can be determined.
D) 12C is very rare in nature. When it does appear in plant material, it is indicative of climate
anomalies. By measuring the 13C/12C ratios, scientists can determine whether the plants were
alive during normal or anomalous conditions.
32) Which of the following accurately describes the use of tree rings for studying past climates
(dendroclimatology)?
A) The age of trees can be determined by tree ring analysis. By establishing the age of long-lived
trees, one can determine the climate conditions of the area the year the tree sprouted.
B) The width of annual tree rings indicates the climatic conditions; wider rings suggest favorable
conditions, whereas narrower rings suggest harsher conditions.
C) Dendrochronology is primarily used in the tropical regions, where one can easily correlate a
tree species' age with the climatic conditions there.
D) Because most trees only live 60 to 100 years, dendrochronology can only serve as a climate
record for recent history and are primarily used to supplement instrument data.
33) Milankovitch cycles refer to
A) changes in Earth-Sun relationships, namely the Earth's orbit around the sun, the Earth's axial
rotation, and the Earth's axial tilt.
B) cyclical changes in solar irradiance caused by increases and decreases in sunspot activity.
C) increases and decreases in atmospheric gases and aerosols, primarily caused by natural
activity such as volcanic activity and changes in net primary productivity.
D) tectonic changes in continental position and topographic changes from orogeny, erosion, and
mass wasting.
34) Changes in the Earth's elliptical orbit around the Sun is called
A) eccentricity.
B) obliquity.
C) precession.
D) inclination.
35) Changes in the orientation of the Earth's axis over a 26,000-year cycle is known as
A) eccentricity.
B) obliquity.
C) precession.
D) inclination.
36) Which of the following is not considered an important carbon sink?
A) the oceans
B) rocks
C) forest and soils
D) farmlands
37) As air temperatures increase, evaporation increases. Warmer temperatures also increase the
capacity to absorb water vapor. More water vapor in the atmosphere accelerates the greenhouse
effect. As temperatures increase further, more water vapor can enter the atmosphere, causing
temperatures to increase even more. This is an example of a(n)
A) positive feedback loop.
B) negative feedback loop.
C) neither a positive or negative feedback loop.
38) As air temperatures increase, evaporation increases, leading to more condensation and cloud
formation. Low, thick cloud cover increases the albedo of the atmosphere, thereby having a
cooling effect on Earth. This is an example of a
A) positive feedback loop.
B) negative feedback loop.
C) neither a positive or negative feedback loop.
39) Increased cloud cover resulting from warming temperatures may lead to either either cloud
albedo forcing or cloud greenhouse forcing. Cloud albedo forcing is an example of a ________
feedback loop and cloud greenhouse forcing is an example of a ________ feed book loop.
A) negative; negative
B) negative; positive
C) positive; negative
D) positive; positive
40) Changes in the Earth's orbital configuration may lead to warming temperatures. These
warming temperatures, in turn, may lead to the release of both CO2 and CH4. Increases in these
gases may further warm the planet. This is an example of a
A) positive feedback loop.
B) negative feedback loop.
C) neither a positive or negative feedback loop.
41)
Since 1990, CO2 emissions
A) have increased for all fuel types, with projections of future increases for all fuel types.
B) increased through the 1990s and 2000s, but are projected to decrease in the coming decades.
C) increased overall. However, these increases varied by fuel type, with coal actually showing a
decrease.
D) decreased through the 1990s and 2000s, but are projected to increase again in the coming
decades due to rapid population growth in less developed nations.
42) How is ocean acidification possibly linked to increased anthropogenic emissions of carbon
dioxide (CO2)?
A) Oceans may absorb up to 50% of rising concentrations of rising carbon. When dissolved CO2
mixes with saltwater, carbonic acid forms (H2CO3).
B) Atmospheric CO2 combines with atmospheric moisture forming a light carbonic acid forms
(H2CO3), that is precipitated over the world's oceans.
C) Increased photosynthetic activity in phytoplankton resulting from increased atmospheric CO2
concentrations results in acidification due to a complex chemical reaction during plant decay.
D) Thermohaline circulation exchanges carbon between surface dissolved organic carbon and
deep layers of dissolved inorganic carbon.
43) Which of the following is not an indicator of current climatic warming?
A) increased tropospheric, land, and ocean surface temperatures
B) decreases in relative humidity
C) melting glacial ice and sea ice
D) rising sea levels
44) Since 1880, the two years with the highest land surface temperature were
A) 1990 and 2000.
B) 2005 and 2010.
C) 1985 and 1992.
D) 1900 and 1940.
45) Which of the following is correct regarding Arctic sea ice?
A) Until recently, seasonal variations in sea ice extent were rare.
B) Summer sea ice reached its minimum extent in 2001 and has gradually increased since then.
C) Since 1979, summer sea ice minimum extent and winter sea ice maximum extent have
declined.
D) In the summer, most to all sea ice melts, only to refreeze in the winter. However, less water
has been refreezing over the past decade.
46) During the last century, sea level
A) dropped 3 to 5 cm (1.18 to 3.15 in.).
B) remained fairly constant, though some areas (such at the Atlantic coast) experienced moderate
rises.
C) rose 30 to 46 cm (11.8 to 18 in.).
D) rose 17 to 21 cm (6.7 to 8.3 in.).
47) Which of the following is not a primary factor contributing to sea-level rise?
A) melting of glaciers
B) melting of ice sheets
C) melting of sea ice
D) thermal expansion of seawater
48) The most abundant greenhouse gas in the Earth's atmosphere is
A) carbon dioxide (CO2).
B) methane (CH4).
C) water vapor (H2O).
D) nitrous oxide (N2O).
49) During the last 800,000, climate reconstructions show that CO2 Never changed more than
________ ppm upward or downward in any span of less than 1,000 years, though it has risen by
this amount in the last 13 years.
A) 30
B) 60
C) 120
D) 240
50) Fossil fuel burning accounts for over ________ percent of CO2 emissions.
A) 20
B) 50
C) 70
D) 85
51) Present atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations are at approximately________ ppb.
A) 750
B) 1000
C) 1500
D) 1800
52) Of the following anthropogenic methane (CH4) sources, which is the largest?
A) livestock
B) wastewater treatment
C) agriculture associated fires
D) rice paddies
53) Scientists attribute the recent rise in atmospheric concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O)
primarily to
A) automobile combustion.
B) agricultural activity.
C) wastewater management.
D) industrial practices.
54) Of the following greenhouse gases, which have actually decreased in atmospheric
concentrations during the past 30 years?
A) methane (CH4)
B) carbon dioxide (CO2)
C) chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
D) nitrous oxides (N2O)
55) Radiative forcing (climate forcing) refers to
A) the power of electromagnetic radiation per unit area.
B) the amount by which some perturbation causes Earth's energy balance to deviate from zero.
C) a measurement of solar radiation energy received on a give surface area.
D) the contribution of each greenhouse gas to global warming.

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