Speech Chapter 5 Make List The Types Evidence You Still Need Have The Students Pairup

Document Type
Homework Help
Book Title
Invitation to Public Speaking - National Geographic Edition 6th Edition
Authors
Cindy L. Griffin
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Chapter Five: Gathering Supporting Materials
____________________________________________________
Chapter Goals
Chapter 5 introduces students to the importance of gathering sources for their speeches. Students should
have an understanding of the following goals after the end of this chapter:
To determine the types of supporting materials needed for speeches
Chapter Outline
I. Determine what types of information you need (pg. 80).
a. Research inventory-A list of the types of information you have for your speech and the
types you want to find.
i. A research inventory helps you focus your research efforts and identify areas that
need special attention.
II. Use your personal knowledge and experience (pg. 82).
a. Before you begin other research, take a moment to consider what knowledge you already
have about your topic.
b. The knowledge you already have can come from your own experiences and training,
family background, hobbies, job or profession, or even things you have read or observed.
III. Identify the technology you might use (pg. 82).
a. There are many forms of technology including a computer, iPad, or other electronic
IV. Search for information on the Internet.
Information found on the Internet is the most prevalent source of research for college students in
the United States.
a. The ethics of Internet research (pg. 83).
i. Websites range dramatically in accuracy, complexity, and usefulness.
ii. Many sites include information that is old, incomplete, or based on personal
opinions and biases.
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b. Evaluating Internet information (pg. 83).
i. Is the information reliable? To check reliability, check the domain in the URL
(pg. 84).
1. .com is a commercial enterprise that might be trying to sell you
something.
3. .edu is an educational institution.
4. .gov is a government agency.
ii. Is the information authoritative?
1. URLs that include a tilde (~) often indicate that a single individual is
2. If you can’t contact the person, try to find the person’s credentials in any
print sources, such as a Who’s Who reference.
iii. How current is the information?
2. You may find great information, but if it doesn’t relate to the time frame
of your speech, it’s not relevant or ethical to use.
iv. How complete is the information?
1. If you want to use an excerpted portion of a printed work, you must locate
the complete work to ensure you are using that material accurately
v. Is the information relevant?
1. Does the information fit your needs? Does it help develop your main
ideas?
vi. Is the information consistent and unbiased?
1. If the information is inconsistent with other sources, it may reflect new
2. Be wary of outrageous or controversial claims that cannot be checked for
accuracy.
V. Finding information at the library (pg. 85).
a. Orientations and librarians are an important part of doing library research.
i. Schedule a tour if you are unfamiliar with the library to save you time on countless
hours wandering around.
ii. Librarians also are excellent resources.
1. Librarians are trained to know how materials are catalogued and stored,
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b. Library catalogs will help you do library research (pg. 86).
i. Catalogs allow you to search by title, author, or subject for books, journals,
magazines, and other print and electronic materials.
c. Databases and indexes are another excellent resource for library research (pg. 86).
i. Databases are collections of information stored electronically so they are easy to
find and retrieve.
ii. Bibliographical databases index publishing data for books, periodical articles,
government reports, statistics, patents, research reports, conference proceedings,
and dissertations.
iii. Full-text databases index the complete text of newspapers, periodicals,
encyclopedias, research reports, court cases, and books.
iv. An abstract is a summary of the text in an article or publication.
d. Government documents (pg. 88).
i. Government documents offer varied useful information.
1. They provide statistics on population, personal income, education, crime,
and health.
3. They report issues discussed in Congress, such as gun control, seat belts,
and education.
5. They record research sponsored by the government.
7. Government documents can be found in print, CD-ROM or DVD, and
sometimes database indexes.
e. Evaluating library resources (pg. 88).
i. Not all the sources you find will be credible or appropriate for your particular
speech and audience.
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VI. Conduct research interviews (pg. 90).
An interview is a planned interaction with another person that is organized around inquiry and
response, with one person asking questions while the other person answers them.
There are several steps to follow when conducting interviews.
a. Determine whom to interview.
i. Who are the experts?
ii. Who has the personal experience?
iii. Consider who the audience will find interesting and credible.
iv. Determine who has time to speak to you.
v. Whom do you have the time to contact?
b. Schedule the interview.
i. Practice your request a few times, so you sound professional.
1. Identify who you are, where you are from, the public speaking course
you are in, and the instructor’s name.
3. Describe why you have contacted that person.
4. Request the interview, letting the interviewee know how much time the
c. Prepare for the interview (pg. 91).
i. Design the interview questions.
2. Closed-ended questions are questions that invite a brief, focused answer
3. A probe is a question that fills out or follows up an answer to previous
questions.
4. Table 5.2, pg.93, Examples and advantages of different types of interview
questions.
ii. Recording the interview (pg. 92).
2. A tape recorder can make an interviewee nervous and less prone to share
stories and ideas.
4. When you record an interview on paper, you can make notes about
nonverbal aspects of the interview.
a. That may help you when you repeat a quote in your speech.
b. But, it can be hard to relax and simply engage in conversation.
d. Conduct the interview (pg. 93).
i. Dress appropriately.
ii. Show up on time.
iii. Begin by introducing yourself.
e. Follow up the interview (pg. 94).
i. As soon as you can, review your notes or transcribe the interview while it is fresh
in your mind.
ii. Make notes as you listen to the tape or review your notes.
iii. Send formal letters of thanks to the interviewees.
f. Ethical interviews are important because people are entrusting you with their words (pg.
94). i. Always ask appropriate questions.
ii. Use quotes and information honestly.
1. If an interviewee provides information that is inconsistent with your
research, double-check your research and the interviewee’s credentials.
3. Do not use the information if an interviewee provides information that is
highly personal or would compromise the integrity of others.
VII. Research tips (pg. 94-95).
a. Begin by filling out your research inventory.
b. Take notes and download copies.
i. For all sources, full name of the author; title of the source; edition, issue or volume;
publisher; publication date; page numbers; and web addresses.
c. Avoid plagiarism (pg. 95).
i. Plagiarism-Presenting another person’s words, and ideas as your own.
ii. Patchwork plagiarism is constructing a complete speech that you present as your
own from portions of several different sources.
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d. Set up a filing system (pg. 96).
e. Bookmark interesting URLs.
i. Keep records of history of your searches.
ii. Separate file for URLs.
f. Gather more material than you think you’ll need.
g. Begin your bibliography with your first source (pg. 96).
i. A bibliography is a record of each of the sources you use in your speech.
VIII. Citing Sources (pg. 98).
a. Citing sources is ethical.
b. Citing sources adds credibility.
c. Rules for citing sources.
End of Chapter Activities and Discussion Questions
The following questions can be found at the end of Chapter 5.
Review Questions and Activities
1. Bring the material you have gathered for your next speech to class. Working in pairs or groups, sort the
material by the types discussed in this chapter. Do you have a range of evidence types, or do you need
to diversify? Make a list of the types of evidence you still need.
2. Use the evaluation criteria described in this chapter to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the
information you have gathered for your next speech. Is it reliable, authoritative, current, complete,
relevant, and consistent? Based on your assessment, identify information you might discard, and
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sources they are planning to use in their next speech. Have them discuss the sources based on the
criteria provided in the chapter and give each other feedback accordingly. Then, have several students
present their findings to the class as a whole and double-check the decisions made by the group.
3. Identify several of the ideas and actual quotations from your research that you want to use in your next
speech. How will you avoid plagiarizing these sources: What strategies will you use for citing them
ethically and accurately?
4. Draft a list of questions you would like to ask a personal contact for your next speech. Keep in mind
your speech goals, time limitations, and your audience. Now organize that list so the most important
questions are first and the least important ones are last. Next, consider how you will begin your
interview. Will you start with your most important questions or some warm-up questions? What
questions will you use to close the interview?
Encourage students to do this if they are considering conducting a personal interview. Students may
5. Bring three or four of the sources you will use in your next speech to class. In small groups, practice
delivering the citation of those sources with each other. Focus on those sources with especially long
Web Activities
1. Understanding Call Numbers
Go to https://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/lcco/ to access the Library of Congress Classification page. How
does the call number system help you find similar books on your subject? What subjects do you
typically use more often than others?
2. Government Websites and Documents
Interactive Student and Professional Speech Videos in MindTap
1. Video Clip 1: Carol Godart, “Fat Discrimination”
Watch Carol Godart’s speech and listen carefully to her source citations. Which different sources does
she cite? Does she cite these sources effectively? Why or why not? How will you adapt the way you
cite sources as a result of listening to Carol’s speech?
Additional Exercises and Resources
some time becoming familiar with how to use the site. Then find some information for your next speech.
What kind of information is contained in this almanac? How is this information useful for your speech?
What are its limitations?
2. Using an Atlas
next speech by browsing through this atlas’s information and maps. What kind of information is
contained at this site? How is this information useful for your speech? What are its limitations?
3. Using a Biographical Dictionary
famous people you don’t know much about, or find information about someone relevant to your next
speech. This site would be a good place to find a topic for an informative speech. What kind of
information is contained at this site? How is this information useful for your speech? What are its
limitations?
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4. Using an Encyclopedia
Purpose: To find evidence using an encyclopedia.
Directions: Many online encyclopedias are available, and some require a membership to use the site.
Britannica.com offers a 14-day free trial to use its premium services, although you may use other
and explore what it has to offer. What kind of information is contained at this site? How is this
information useful for your speech? What are its limitations?
5. Research Inventory
6. Evaluating Internet Sources Checklist
At the end of this chapter, you will find a checklist for evaluating Internet sources. You can copy the
7. Evaluating Library Resources
At the end of this chapter your will find a checklist for evaluating library resources, adapted from
8. Interview Questions
Place students into small groups of 3-4. In their groups, have students draft open-ended questions,
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a. The topic for your speech is the lack of parking on campus. You and your peers are finding it
very difficult to find parking in your campus. As a result, you are preparing a persuasive speech
b. The topic of your speech is renters’ rights. You and your roommates are becoming increasingly
frustrated with the lack of attention your landlord is putting into your house. You would like to
c. You are interested in giving a commemorative speech about your grandparents. What kinds of
d. You are giving an invitational speech exploring the issue of whether to attend college or join
the military upon graduating from high school. What kind of information would you want to
9. Service Learning
Identify the agencies that students are working with and ask the students to come to class with a list
of the people who work at their agency, including the job titles (this shouldn’t be a problem because
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Research Inventory
Speech Topic:
General/Broad Purpose:
Specific Purpose:
Thesis Statement:
My audience is:
I currently have:
Statistics:
My audience will want to hear:
Statistics for the following:
The kinds of sources they will find trustworthy are:
I need to find the following information:
Sources for this information:
I want to look for this information in the following sources:
Evaluating Internet Sources
Information Quality Checklist
1. Scope
Is the information at an appropriate use level?
Is the purpose of the site to provide information? Or does it promote a position?
2. Audience/Instructional Design
What audience level is the site intended for?
3. Author
Is the author a known expert in the area?
Was the page linked to another page that you are familiar with?
4. Authority or Publishing Body
Is there an organization that has taken credit for the site?
What can you determine about the site by reading its URL? What is the suffix ending
5. Currency
Can you tell when the site was created?
Has it been updated since its creation?
How up-to-date are the links?
6. Treatment
Are sources documented in a scholarly bibliography and/or connected by hyperlink?
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7. Arrangement/Ease of Use
Is the site user friendly?
Is the information presented in a logical, ordered manner?
Is there a clear site map or hypermedia index?
Do graphics and hypermedia add to or detract from the quality of the site?
Is using the site a pleasant experience?
To score: Allow 1 point for each “yes” answer, 0 points for each “no” answer. There are 28 total
possible points.
Score Percent Website
25-28 90-100% Excellent
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Evaluating Library Resources
1. Is the source reliable?
2. Is the source authoritative?
5. Is the source relevant?
6. Is the source consistent with other information you have found?
When to Use the Internet, When to Use the Library
Want to explore less established Want established sources
sources
Want shortened versions of print Want the full text of a document
documents
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Citing Sources and Creating a Works Cited Page
Created by
Jennifer Emerling Bone
T. M. Linda Scholz
Citing sources in speeches may be awkward at first; however, it is very important. Citing sources helps a
speaker establish their credibility by strengthening information and arguments they have to offer. The
following information contains guidelines for citing sources while you are speaking and for creating a
works-cited page.
Citing Sources While Speaking
You have two options when citing sources while you are speaking: 1) directly quoting a source and 2)
paraphrasing a source. Regardless of which you choose, you always need to give credit where credit is due
in order to avoid plagiarism.
Use direct quotes when you use the source’s content word-for-word.
Use paraphrasing when you summarize a source’s content into your own words, without changing
the original intent or meaning.
When you paraphrase, the author and source still need to be cited.
The author of the article, book, website, etc.
The author’s title or credentials (for credibility).
Creating the Works Cited Page
To create a works cited page, follow the guidelines given to you by your instructor, or use these guidelines,
based on the Modern Language Association (MLA) style, recommended by Diana Hacker in A Writer’s
Reference, 4th ed.
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Begin your works cited page on a NEW sheet of paper.
Sources in the works cited page are ALWAYS alphabetized REGARDLESS of the type of source.
Because different types of sources follow different rules, use these examples as guidelines:
Book
Book by multiple authors
List authors in the order in which they appear on the title page of the book. Reverse the name of ONLY the
first author. Then, follow the above guidelines.
Unknown Author
Begin with the title, but alphabetize by the first word of content or substance. Do not alphabetize by A, An,
or The if this is the starting word (see the sample works cited page for clarification).
Pamphlet
Follow the rules for citing a book.
World Conference Against Racism: Racial Discrimination Xenophobia and Related Intolerance.
Magazine or Newspaper
Begin with the author’s name (last name first); title of the article in quotation marks; title of the source
(magazine or newspaper) italicized or underlined; date (day, month, and year). Put a colon (:) after the year,
and then cite the page number/s.
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Journal
Begin with author’s name, title of the article in quotation marks, journal title (italicized or underlined),
volume number, year of publication in parenthesis, colon following the year, page numbers.
Keshishian, Flora. “Political Bias in Nonpolitical News: A Content Analysis of an Armenian and
Personal Interview
Begin with the name of the person interviewed, then write “personal interview,” and the date of the
interview (day, month, year).
E-mail
Begin with the author of the e-mail, followed by the topic of the e-mail in quotation marks. Then, begin a
new sentence and write “e-mail to _______.” Follow this with the date received.
Television Educational Programs
Begin with the episode title in quotation marks, followed by the program title (underlined or italicized), the
network, the local station and city, the broadcast date.
Internet Sources
Begin with the author, followed by the name of the article in quotation marks, title of the webpage
(underlined or italicized), the date of the last update/publication or date accessed, and then the electronic
address in angle brackets.
Encyclopedia
List the author of the article, title of the article, title of the encyclopedia/reference work (underlined or
italicized), edition number and the date. If the author’s name is signed, place first. If the author’s name is
unsigned, then provide the title first.
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Sample Works Cited
Bone, Jennifer. “Creating a works cited page.” E-mail to T. M. Linda Scholz. 14 Dec. 2001.
Boyd, Valerie. “The Last Word.” Ms. 25 Sept. 2000: 80-83.
Keshishian, Flora. “Political Bias in Nonpolitical News: A Content Analysis of an Armenian and Iranian
Earthquake in the New York Times and Washington Post.” Critical Studies in Mass Communication 35
(1997): 332-43.
Loeffler-Clemens, Therese. Personal interview. 13 Dec. 2001.
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Supplemental Bibliography
Alexander, Janet E. Web Wisdom: How to Evaluate and Create Information Quality on the Web.
Berkman, Robert I., Find It Fast: How to Uncover Expert Information on Any Subject, 4th ed. New
York: Harper Perennial, 1997.
This is a user-friendly guide to all types of research. Does this book not only describe and explain
Butler, John A. CyberSearch: Research Techniques in the Electronic Age. New York: Penguin
Reference, 1998.
Hacker, Diana, and Fister, Barbara. Research and Documentation in the Electronic Age, 5th ed.
Bedford/St., Martin, 2010.
Hacker and Fister show how to locate and document sources in the humanities, social sciences,
Li, Xia. Electronic Styles: A Handbook for Citing Electronic Information, 2nd ed. Medford, NJ:
Information Today, 1996.
Mann, Thomas. The Oxford Guide to Library Research. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Metter, Ellen. The Writer’s Ultimate Research Guide. Cincinnati, OH: Writer’s Digest Books, 1995.
While focused on fiction and nonfiction writers, this book has useful information for any
Radford, Marie L., Barnes, Susan B., and Barr, Linda R. Web Research: Selecting, Evaluating, and
Citing. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2002.
32
Stewart, Charles J., and Cash, William B. Interviewing: Principles and Practices. Dubuque, IA: W. C.
Brown Co., 1974.

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