Speech Chapter 13 See Activity This Speech Normally The Hardest Type Speech Give Just Different

Document Type
Homework Help
Book Title
Invitation to Public Speaking - National Geographic Edition 6th Edition
Authors
Cindy L. Griffin
Questions Asked by Instructors
What exactly is an invitational speech?
An invitational speech is a speech in which a speaker shares their perspective on an issue and then
engages in a conversation with their audience about that issue. This might be an issue they would
like to explore, an idea they would like to share, or a proposal they would like to discuss. Although
Is the invitational speech harder to teach than the other traditional speeches?
No, the invitational speech is just different from traditional speeches. It has a structure and format
in the same way informative or persuasive speeches do. In fact, once an instructor fully understands
The invitational speech seems like one more speech I have to teach now; how do I decide which speeches
to include in my curriculum?
As an instructor, it is important to provide students with a variety of possibilities to choose from as
they encounter future public speaking situations. An instructor needs to decide which speech types
may be of use to the students in their future and offer them the skills to turn theory into practice.
How can I explain the difference between an informative, persuasive, and invitational speech?
Explain to the students the goal of each speech type. Tell students that informative speeches, while
staying neutral, give the audience information about a certain topic that they don’t already have;
How do I manage the time requirement for an invitational speech in my curriculum?
Invitational speeches do take up more time than the other types of speaking (10-15 minutes, on
average). One option is to limit both the speech content and dialogue to a specific time frame. Have
Why should I teach the invitational speech round?
Teaching the invitational speech round offers students another option for speech making. Many
students have reported the invitational round is a realistic speech for day-to-day interactions.
Is there a list of possible invitational speech topics to share with the students?
Yes, see Activity #4.
Are there any topics students should not use as invitational speech topics?
YES, there are many topics that students may feel VERY strongly about (e.g., reproductive rights,
religion, death penalty); these topics can make it very difficult for students to understand and
Questions Asked by Students
When is this type of speech used?
An invitational speech is frequently used in day-to-day interactions or “mini-speeches.” People use
it to make decisions about what college to attend, what job to accept, even what items to purchase.
Invitational speeches are often given in the work place, during round table discussions or when
When do you include the dialogue with the audience?
A speaker can decide when the dialogue would be the most productive. Typically, students like to
Can you use visual aids?
Of course, but invitational visual aids should be chosen carefully. If visual aids are used, they
What do I do when I disagree with what someone is saying?
As members of a community, it is important to understand others’ viewpoints while staying true to
Isn’t this speech just being nice?
No, it is respecting others and appreciating all the possible viewpoints to a single topic. By
respecting others, audience members will likely continue to engage in conversation. Oftentimes
What if nobody responds during the dialogue?
Although this rarely happens, speakers can bring questions with them to the speech in case their
Why do I need sources in my speech if we are exploring ideas with the audience?
Invitational speeches are researched, just like other speeches. Although we do have, views and
Can we include sources during the dialogue?
When it comes to the dialogue, does the class just voice their opinion or do I ask them questions?
What happens if everyone agrees with me?
If everyone is in agreement, be prepared to ask a few students to expand on why they hold their
What is the easiest way to start this speech?
What are good topics for the invitational speech?
Good topics are those topics in which a speaker can be open to the perspectives of others if they
point of view. See Activity #4.
Is this speech normally the hardest type of speech to give?
No, it is just different from the other more familiar speeches. Students have reported in the past that
Why does the invitational speech need to be so long?
Because the speaker does not claim to have all the answers, there needs to be time to listen to
What are good topics to stay away from?
Can we have questions during the body section of the speech? For example, can I talk about my first main
point and discuss it with my audience, then talk about my second main point and enter into a second
discussion with the audience?
Is it a good idea to pick a topic that I already know a lot about?
How do we keep track of the dialogue so we can work it into the conclusion?
Is there a specific format we need to use?
The format may seem more flexible than the other traditional speeches; however, this speech does
How do we create a preparation outline for an invitational speech? What about the conclusion?
The preparation outline should follow the same format as the other speeches, with exception to the
13. The Types of Invitational Speeches. Students often need to see an example of a speech in order to
understand how to create the required speech. These are examples of speeches to explore an issue.
To Explore an Issue
Topic: The Equal Rights Amendment
General Purpose: To invite
Specific Purpose: To invite my audience to explore, and to explore myself, possible reasons to ratify or
not ratify the Equal Rights amendment.
Thesis Statement: I know there are some good reasons to support the Equal Rights amendment, but
many people feel it should not be supported and I’d like to discuss these reasons with them.
Main points:
I. Many people argue that the Equal Rights Amendment should be ratified because men and women
should be viewed and treated as equal.
II. Other individuals suggest that ratifying the Equal Right Amendment would have a harmful effect
on society.
III. I respect women, but we are different and I value those differences.
IV. I’d like to discuss these views with my audience and learn more about this issue.
To Explore an Issue
Topic: Evolution and Creation
General Purpose: To invite
Specific Purpose: To invite my audience to explore, and to explore myself, three theories of evolution
and creation and their role in public education.
Main Points:
I. The debate between evolution and creationism has existed since the theory of evolution was
proposed by Darwin and brought to the public’s attention in the Scopes “Monkey Trial” in 1925.
II. The creationist theory holds that God created the universe and all living things, including humans,
whom God made in his image.
III. The theory of evolution, also known as the big bang theory, argues that the universe was created
Sample Invitational Speech: To Explore an Issue
Evolution/Creationism/Intelligent design
By
Cara Buckley-Ott
Introduction
I. By the end of a toothbrush’s life (usually 1-3 months) there is more microscopic bacteria
collected within its bristles than in the average public toilet.
A. Considering investing in newer toothbrushes?
B. This belief stems from the theory of evolution that believes that humans have evolved
over time from tiny microscopic organisms formed in the big bang that created the
universe.
C. However, this theory is not alone in its explanation of the creation of the universe, and in
fact, it has been enveloped in controversy and debate since, well, basically the beginning
of time.
II. Recently, however, a new argument has been added to this debate, making it a newly charged
issue, but also making it more difficult than ever to reconcile.
A. This new argument, surrounding the theory of intelligent design, is giving new life to the
evolution/creationism debate, and, for this reason, it is my feeling that this issue deserves
to be considered and discussed in order to determine how it should be handled.
III. Today, in order to give us all a grounding for discussing this issue together, I’d like to invite
you to consider the history of this debate, as well as a detailed explanation of the opinions
that inform each side of this argument.
A. In addition, I’d like to bring you up-to-date on the most recent version of this debate,
intelligent design.
B. Following this, I’d like to discuss this issue as a class and gather the thoughts and
IV. I am not sure where I stand on this issue. I’d like to discuss this debate with you so that I may
form a better opinion myself.
Body
I. According to The Plain Dealer of March 12, 2002, although the debate between evolution
and creationism has existed since the theory of evolution was first proposed by Darwin, the
controversy that continues to surround this debate actually began in 1925 with the “Scopes
Monkey Trial.”
A. John Scopes was a science teacher in Tennessee who taught Darwin’s theory of evolution
in a public school system.
i. Many people don’t realize that he agreed to teach evolution in order to be
arrested and tried, in an effort to bring the issue to the public’s attention.
B. Although Scopes was convicted of teaching evolution, the decision was overturned a year
later in an appeal.
i. However, it took 43 years after the Scopes Monkey Trial for the Supreme
Court to deem the restriction on teaching evolution unconstitutional.
Transition: I’d like to continue on now by discussing the competing theories.
II. According to Robert Pennock’s 1999 book, Tower of Babel, creationism is the belief that God
created the universe and all living things, including humans, whom God made in his image.
i. There are even some creationists who believe that God set evolution in
motion, set some rules for it, and then let the process proceed on its own.
B. However, no matter what the specific sect of creationism believes, all creationists stand
by the notion of the universe, and humans specifically, having been created by God to
Transition: On the other side of this argument are the supporters of evolution, which supports the Big
Bang theory of creation, as opposed to divine creation.
III. The Big Bang theory says that the universe was formed through a compression of matter and
intense heat causing a massive explosion, or bang.
A. According to the Big Bang Chronology website, this intense bang set in motion the
creation of the life forming elements on our planet.
B. With the creation of these elements, life, at a microscopic level, was allowed to begin
millions of years after the big bang.
C. Evolution contends that there is overwhelming evidence that all living things share a
common ancestor in the fossil record, the genetic code, distribution of life on earth, and
Transition: However, recently, a new argument has been added to this age-old debate, bringing new heat
to the never-quite-extinguished fire of the evolution/creation debate.
IV. The newest argument in the creation debate revolves around what has come to be known as
“Intelligent Design.”
A. This theory looks to what some say is the biggest gap in scientific knowledgethe
origins of RNA and DNA, the building blocks of life.
B. Believers in intelligent design theory claim that the “irreducible complexity” of both
human and animal DNA and RNA leads to the conclusion that these items couldn’t just
be acts of spontaneous occurrences where all of the items needed just happened to line up
right at the right time.
Discussion
I. At this point, I’d like to open the floor to discussion.
A. In my mind, this is an important issue for all of us.
i. More and more school boards are being asked to consider the inclusion of
B. We are all products of the United States education system, and furthermore, we are
affected by changes in this system.
i. Before any drastic changes are made to this system that could affect our
C. By discussing this issue in a classroom environment, we are able to hear others’ opinions
and voice our own.
i. I hope that in doing so, we can all walk away feeling more comfortable
with this topic and ready to address it in whatever capacity we may have
to.
Dialogue
Conclusion
I. As you can see, the issue of creationism versus evolution has always been an interesting and
messy one.
A. In addition, with the introduction of Intelligent Design theory, this issue only becomes
more complex.
Critique Sheet: Invitational Speech
Name _______________________ _____ Time: _______ Grade: _____ Points: _____
Key: + Excellent; Satisfactory; - Needs improvement; 0 Failed to complete
INTRODUCTION Time:
Captured attention/interest _____
Introduced the topic _____
Established credibility _____
Previewed main points _____
BODY
Main points clear _____
Main points explained clearly _____
Connectives _____
Source citation_____
Audience centered _____
Use of invitational language _____
Clarity of PowerPoint _____
Management of PowerPoint _____
DIALOGUE WITH AUDIENCE Time:
Condition of equality _____
Condition of value _____
Condition of self-determination _____
Listening and response _____
SUMMARY/CONCLUSION Time:
Signaled the speech is ending _____
Summarized main points _____
Final conclusions _____
Closed decisively _____
DELIVERY
Volume ______
Eye contact _____
Avoided distracting mannerisms _____
Articulation _____
Rate _____
Extemporaneous/conversational style _____
Enthusiasm _____
OUTLINE
Complete sentence form _____
Logical subordination _____
Grammar _____
Works Cited _____
Practicing the Open Dialogue
To prepare you for the open dialogue of the invitational speech, respond to the first two questions with
your group members. After you have discussed the questions, move on to the practical component of this
activity. Make sure that you time yourselves so that each group member has a turn. Provide each other
with effective feedback, keeping in mind the tips your textbook provides for effective and ethical
invitational speaking.
1) Consider the times you, as an audience member have been from a background very different from
the other audience members, a very similar background to other audience members, or held
different or similar beliefs. How did this affect your experience? Did the speaker address these
differences or similarities? What was the effect of the speaker’s actions?
2) What are your biggest fears regarding discussions and question-and-answer sessions? Based on
3) In your small groups, each of you will practice a timed discussion/questions/answer period using
How to Be a “Good” Audience Member
1) Raise your hands to speak.
2) Ask questions respectfully.
3) Be concise.
4) Know your own position.
5) Why do you feel the way that you do?
6) Use invitational language.
No name-calling
Maintain composure and respect
7) Offer positive reinforcement.
Use phrases such as:
“Interesting, can you elaborate on that?”
“How might that work?”
“Why do you think so?”
“What benefits do you see with that position?”
Supplemental Bibliography
Anderson, Rob, Cissna, Kenneth N., and Ronald, Arnett C. (Eds.). The Reach of Dialogue: Confirmation,
Voice, and Community. New Jersey: Hampton Press, 1994.
Barrett, Harold. Rhetoric and Civility. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991.
Carter, Stephen L. Civility: Manners, Morals, and the Etiquette of Democracy. New York: Basic Books,
1998.
Carter provides an excellent overview of the practice of civility, relating it to both manners and
Ellinor, Linda, and Gerard, Glenna. Dialogue: Rediscovering the Transforming Powers of Conversation.
New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998.
Foss, Sonja K., and Foss, Karen A. Foss. Inviting Transformation, 2nd ed. Prospect Heights, IL:
Wavelend, 2003.
Foss, Sonja K., and Griffin, Cindy L. “Beyond Persuasion: A Proposal for an Invitational Rhetoric.”
Communication Monographs, 62, (1995): 2-18.
Gearhart, Sally Miller. “The Womanization of Rhetoric.” Women’s Studies International Quarterly, 2
(1979): 195-201.
Issacs, William. Dialogue and the Art of Thinking Together. New York: Doubleday, 1999.
Makau, Josina M., and Marty, Debian L., Cooperative Argumentation: A Model for Deliberative
Community. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland, 2001.
Shepherd, Gregory J. “Communication as Influence: Definitional Exclusion.” Communication Studies, 43
(1992): 203-209.
Spano, Shawn. Public Dialogue and Participatory Dialogue. New Jersey: Hampton Press, 2001.
Tannen, Deborah. The Argument Culture: Stopping America’s War of Words. New York: Ballantine,
1999.
Walton, Douglas N., and Krabbe, Eric C.W. Commitment in Dialogue: Basic Concepts of Interpersonal
Reasoning. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995.

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