Speech Chapter 1 People Who Are Apprehensive About Communicating With Others Any Situation Have Trait

Document Type
Homework Help
Book Title
Invitation to Public Speaking - National Geographic Edition 6th Edition
Cindy L. Griffin
Chapter One: Why Speak in Public?
Chapter Goals
Chapter 1 provides a foundation for public speaking as public dialogue, and sets the stage for the course.
Students are asked to consider how the following concepts will assist them in understanding the
foundation of public speaking:
Civility and its relationship to the public dialogue.
The power of ethical public speaking.
Chapter Outline
I. The power of ethical public speaking (pg. 2).
a. The power of ethical public speaking lies in civility.
b. Civility has come to mean care and concern for others, the thoughtful use of words and
language, and the flexibility to see the many sides of an issue (pg. 2).
i. To be civil is to listen to the ideas and reasons of others and to give “the world a
chance to explain itself.”
c. The public dialogue is the ethical and civil exchange of ideas and opinions among
communities about topics that affect the public (pg. 3).
i. To participate in the public dialogue is to offer perspectives, share facts, raise
questions, and engage others publicly in stimulating discussions.
d. To be an ethical public speaker is to consider the moral impact of your ideas and
arguments on others when you enter the public dialogue (pg. 3).
II. Culture and speaking style (pg. 4).
a. Culture has a significant effect on communication.
i. Culture may be derived from our nationality, race, ethnicity, religion, work
2. Arab Americans tend to use an emotional and poetic style and rely on
rhythm and the sounds of words to express their ideas.
3. The use of inductive and experiential reasoning, folk wisdom, and
5. Generally, African American men tend to be more comfortable with a
6. Hispanic or Latino males usually reject the competitive style, favoring a
more elegant, expressive, or intense narrative form of public speaking.
7. In most Native American cultures, framing an issue as having only two
sides is rare.
a. Multiple perspectives are welcomed and competition is
iv. Research on styles of speaking specific to women is slight.
1. In general, African American and Hispanic or Latina women may use a
2. White and Asian American women seem to share a sense of comfort with
3. In general, women from many different cultural backgrounds tend to
incorporate a more personal tone.
a. They use more personal experiences and anecdotes.
b. They use concrete examples as evidence.
c. They establish connection and common ground with their
III. What is ethical public speaking? (pg. 6).
a. There are several different sources of communication.
i. Intrapersonal communication is communication with ourselves via the
dialogue that goes on in our heads (pg. 6).
ii. Interpersonal communication is communication with other people that ranges
b. There are several important differences between public speaking and other forms of
communication (pg. 6).
i. The public speaker is responsible for framing the conversation or dialogue,
ii. Is responsible for laying the foundation for future discussions.
iii. Interested in presenting ideas fairly and openly, and in receiving feedback from
the audience.
c. Public speaking creates a community (pg. 7).
d. Public speaking is audience centered (pg. 7).
i. Audience centered is being considerate of the positions, beliefs, values, and
needs of an audience.
e. Public speaking is audience centered because speakers “listen” to feedback from their
audience (verbal and nonverbal signals the audience gives a speaker).
f. Public speaking is influenced by technology (pg. 9).
i. Public dialogue is enriched and made more sophisticated by the technology we
use. Some examples are research, tools to design visual aids, and presentational
g. Public speaking encourages ethical dialogue (pg. 9).
i. Speakers want the people who hear the speech to be able to engage others, and
even the speaker, in a conversation about the topic or issue after the speech is
IV. A model of the public speaking process (pg. 10).
a. There are seven components that comprise the public speaking process.
i. Speaker is the person who stimulates public dialogue by delivering an oral
message (pg. 10).
ii. Message is the information conveyed by the speaker to the audience (pg. 10).
1. Messages can be verbal and nonverbal.
3. Messages can be intentional and unintentional.
a. Unintentional messages can be an unplanned pause, a sigh, or
a frown that conveys an idea or feeling we had not planned to
4. We convey messages by encoding or translating ideas and feelings into
words, sounds, and gestures.
iii. Audience is the complex and varied individuals the speaker addresses (pg. 10).
iv. Channel is the means by which the message is conveyed (pg. 11).
1. The means can be through spoken words, vocal tone, gestures, and visual
aids or even through technological means such as a telephone, a
2. Internal noise is interference within the speaker or audience such as a
headache that affects concentration or cultural differences that make it
hard to understand a message (pg. 11).
V. Building Confidence as a Public Speaker
a. Communication apprehension is what we often call nervousness before a speech (pg.
b. People who are apprehensive about communicating with others in any situation have
trait anxiety (pg. 11).
c. People who are apprehensive about communicating with others in a particular situation
have state or situational anxiety (pg. 11).
d. Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is the anxiety we feel when we learn we have to give a
speech or take a public speaking course. Many people are state anxious because public
speaking is:
i. Novel.
ii. Done in formal settings.
e. Rankings of what people fear while giving a speech:
i. Trembling or shaking, 80%
ii. Mind going blank, 74%
f. Suggestions to help build confidence and turn nervous energy to one’s advantage:
i. Do your research (pg. 12).
ii. Practice your speech (pg. 13).
1. Systematic desensitization, a technique to teach your body to feel calm
1. Visualization is the process in which you construct a mental image of
yourself giving a successful speech (pg. 14).
3. The technique of cognitive restructuring is the process that builds
confidence by which one replaces negative thoughts with positive
End of Chapter Activities and Discussion Questions
The following questions and activities can be found at the end of Chapter 1.
Review Questions and Activities
1. Who are the most compelling speakers you have encountered? Why did they speak: Did they decide,
were they asked, or was it required? What issues did they discuss? How do these issues relate to the
public dialogue discussed in this chapter? What made these speakers such strong presenters?
Either during lecture or as a homework assignment, ask students to think of speakers they have heard
2. This chapter presented Deborah Tannen’s notion of the argument culture. What is your perception of
this culture? Have you been exposed to public communication as an argument? What were your
reactions to this kind of interaction? If the people engaged in this interaction were to communicate
civilly, what specific things would change?
One way to prompt students to think about the idea of an argument culture is to have them think about
3. Make a list of the issues you find interesting and have followed for some time. Who spoke publicly on
those issues? If you do not know who gave speeches on these issues, spend time in the library and on
the Internet finding these speeches. How do these speeches affect your own positions on these issues?
How does this activity shape your perception of the unending conversation discussed in this chapter?
This activity is especially effective if it is assigned as a homework assignment, particularly if students
4. What cultural background or gender influences do you think will become (or already are) a part of your
speaking style? Are these similar to those discussed in this chapter? If they are different, identify the
differences and how they affect communication. Discuss this topic in your own public speaking class
so that you and your classmates begin with recognition of the differences you will encounter as you all
give speeches.
5. Set aside fifteen minutes of alone time the day before your first speech. Take time to visualize that
speech as the process is described in this chapter. Go through each step carefully and in detail. Do not
rush or overlook any aspect of the speech process. After you give your speech, compare having
visualized the speech and your level of nervousness to a situation in which you were nervous but did
not visualize. Was the visualization helpful in reducing your nervousness? Why or why not?
6. Either alone or with a friend, list or discuss the negative self-talk you use to describe your ability to
give speeches. Identify the specific negative phrases you use and turn them into positive affirmations.
Be realistic in reframing your negative self-talk into positive self-talk, using the examples in this
chapter as a guide.
7. As you listen to other students give their speeches, see if you can find similarities and differences
between them and you. This will help you find points of connection with your audience, one of the
techniques for reducing your nervousness before a speech. It also will help you stay audience
Web Activities
1. Public Dialogue Consortium
Dialogue Consortium lists for developing dialogue in communities. How does public speaking
prepare you to enact these principles in your community? What issues in your community would
benefit from increased dialogue?
The idea of a public dialogue is being discussed in many arenas (see the resources listed at the end of
this chapter for additional reading). You can have students log on to this website and read the
principles, then compare them to the idea of a public dialogue discussed in this chapter. How do the
seven principles influence the kinds of topics they choose for speeches and the ways they present those
2. Thinking About Audience
3. Randall Arauz
catastrophic shark finning industry, making his country the international model for shark protection
through his experiences with public speaking. Who are some other people who have spoken to address
an urgent need? What are some urgent needs in your community? Who might address them?
impact of McCarthyism? How can speakers today avoid the extremes of the McCarthy era?
Learn how in dialogue, participants explore the presuppositions, beliefs, and feelings that shape their
interactions; they discover how hidden values and intentions control people's behavior and contribute
to communication successes and failures. Has there been an issue in your area you would like to see
addressed? How might you organize a meeting to address this issue? What skills do you have that
would make you a successful convener?
If you are assigning a speech topic, using service learning as an option in your course, or you are
Interactive Student and Professional Speech Videos in MindTap
1. Mike Piel Video Clip
As you watch Mike Piel speak, consider the ways in which he remains audience centered throughout
his speech. How does he stay audience centered in this clip? Can you list specific phrases he uses that
indicate he is considering his audience as he speaks?
Additional Exercises and Resources
1. Controversial Topics List
Ask students to generate a list of the most controversial issues that are part of the public dialogue locally
2. Styles of Communication
Discuss with students the different styles of communication presented in this chapter that are specific
to cultures (many of the resources listed in the supplemental bibliography will help you with this
discussion). What specific differences do they notice, and what are the strengths and weaknesses of
those differences? Discuss whether, if they use these culture-specific styles of communication, they
might include them in their speeches. What are the benefits or disadvantages of including them in their
3. Service Learning
If you are incorporating service learning in your class, introduce the idea during this first lecture.
Identify the agencies you have selected and the topics on which students will be researching and
Supplemental Bibliography
Axtell, Roger E. Gestures: The Do’s and Taboos of Body Language Around the World. New York:
Wiley, 1998.
Boyd, Stephen D., and Lanita Bradley Boyd. Attention: The Art of Holding Your Audience in
the Palm of Your Hand. Ft. Thomas, Kentucky: Ajalon Press, 2009.
The Boyds’ book gives eighteen valuable strategies for assuring that your audiences pay attention
Cushner, Kenneth, and Richard W. Brislin. Intercultural Interactions: A Practical Guide, 2nd ed.
Thousand Oaks: Sage, 1996.
Dowis, Richard. The Lost Art of the Great Speech: How to Write One, How to Deliver It. New York:
American Management Association, 2000.
Ford, Wendy S. Zabava, and Wolvin, Andrew D. “The Differential Impact of a Basic Communication
Course on Perceived Competencies in Class, Work, and Social Contexts.” Communication
Education, 42 (1993): 215-223.
Gudykunst, William B., and Kim, Young Yun. Communicating With Strangers: An Approach to
Intercultural Communication, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997.
of communication and its basic forms. The text also provides study questions in each chapter.
Kearney, Pat, and Plax, Timothy G., Public Speaking in a Diverse Society,2nd ed. Mayfield
Publishing Co. 1999.
This introductory public speaking text integrates discussion of cultural influences on
Rubin, Rebecca B., and Graham, Elizabeth E. “Communication Correlates of College Success: An

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