Chapter 3 – Evidence-Based Practice Questions
This activity contains 3 questions.
Evidence for Effective Leadership and Management
Citation: Kalisch, B. & Begeny, S. (2010). Preparation of nursing students for change
and innovation. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 32(2), 157–167.
Overview: This critical question influenced this study: How do we prepare the next
generation of nurses who will need to adapt and innovate in the changing healthcare
delivery system? To respond to this question, the study examines “the information
processing styles of nursing students in baccalaureate programs and also the extent to
which the current nursing educational system promotes the development of creativity, an
action orientation, and a willingness to change to prepare them for the demands of the
health care system” (p. 158). The Organizational Engineering Model is used in this study.
This model describes four information processing styles: reactive simulator, logical
processor, hypothetical analyzer, and relational innovator. The sample included 271
freshmen, sophomores, and seniors in two baccalaureate nursing programs. The study
used a validated survey, I-Opt, to determine preference in task completion, change, and
directions (performer, conservator, perfector, and changer). The study concludes that
schools of nursing recruit students who use the conservator information style, which
focuses on “outcome certainty and deliberate response” (p. 157). In addition to frequently
recruiting conservator students, schools of nursing are graduating students who are
conservators, so the students have not changed their processing style by the time of
Application: Change is critical in clinical practice and in leadership and management.
Understanding how nurses respond to change can help to determine if interventions are
needed to improve change response. According to this study, though the sample is small
and more research is required, nurses do have a problem with their change response. As
noted in this study, the nursing education report (2010) by Benner et al. also identifies
this as a major concern.
How does your typical response to change relate to the styles described in this study?
Do you think you need to improve in how you respond to change? If so, why and how?
What recommendations would you give to your nursing program to help students better
understand and respond to change? Provide specific examples.