land attack Sending a packet to a machine with the source host/port being the same as the destination host/port,
causing some systems to crash.
loop back address An address used to test a machine’s own network card, 127.0.0.1.
ping To send a single ICMP packet to a destination, usually to confirm that the destination can be reached.
Ping of Death (PoD) To send an extremely large packet to a target. For some older systems, this would cause the
target to crash.
proxy server A machine or software that hides all internal network IP addresses from the outside world. It
provides a point of contact between a private network and the Internet.
router A device that separates networks.
RST cookie A method to prevent denial-of-service attacks that actually uses a type of cookie to authenticate the
smurf A specific type of distributed denial-of-service attack.
SYN cookies Cookies used to authenticate connection requests and thus avoid certain types of Denial of Service
SYN flood A denial-of-service attack in which the target is flooded with connection requests that are never
teardrop attack A type of attack against a TCP/IP stack based on using fragmented packets.
Trojan horse Software that appears to have a valid and benign purpose but actually has another nefarious
UDP flood attack A denial-of-service attack based on sending a huge number of UDP packets.
virus Software that is self-replicating and spreads like a biological virus.
Teaching Tips: You should not attempt any of these attacks on a LAN that is a subnet
of any production system. You may need to set up an isolated LAN to demonstrate this.