cracker One who breaks into a system to do something malicious, illegal, or harmful. A hacker with malicious
intent; synonymous with black hat hacker.
dumpster diving The process to search through trash looking for information that might be useful in hacking
(particularly social engineering) or identity theft.
network scanning The process to scan a network looking for vulnerabilities.
ping To send a single ICMP packet to a destination, usually to confirm that the destination can be reached.
port A numerical designation for a connection point on a computer. There are well-defined ports for specific
protocols, such as FTP port 21 and HTTP port 80.
sneaker Someone who attempts to compromise a system to assess its vulnerability.
social engineering Using interpersonal skills to extract information about a computer system and its security.
white hat hackers Hackers who hack only for legal/ethical purposes.
I. Basic Reconnaissance
Teaching Tips: Students must understand that an IP address will locate a computer on
the network, while a port number will locate an application or service running on that computer.
Teaching Tips: This is important. It may be illegal to run these tools on any system
other than the ones that students own and run. If they are to run these tools on another system, they must
first get permission from the network owners. Stress to students that running these tools at work or at
Troubleshooting: In many networks, these tools may be blocked at the firewall or
II. Using IP Registration Information
Teaching Tips: Have students access Google and type in their name, phone number,
or address. See how much personal information they can collect online on themselves or other classmates.