Journalism Appendix A Homework Development of a station organizational chart and a review of unions, broadcast departments/positions and responsibilities

Document Type
Homework Help
Book Title
Keith's Radio Station: Broadcast-- Internet-- and Satellite 9th Edition
Bruce Mims, John Allen Hendricks
Instructors have also incorporated Keith’s Radio Station, either as primary text or as a secondary text, into a
number of other basic communications courses. For example, in programming and production several chapters
are blended with a text on audio production. Chapter 3 is used to introduce basic programming principles;
(Courtesy of Hope Daniels, Radio Department, School of Media Arts, Columbia College, Chicago)
Course Rationale: To be successful in any career, one needs a wide base of knowledge plus a solid foundation in
Course Description: This introductory radio course deals with the language and concepts of radio broadcasting.
Students will be introduced to an overview of radio broadcast history, station organization and operations, past
and present technologies, format development, career opportunities and terminology through the use of lectures,
class speakers, projects, films, quizzes, exams and group exercises.
Course Goals and Objectives:
Students will have knowledge of FCC Rules and Regulations plus radio history and terminology.
Students will understand radio station job descriptions, prerequisites of various positions and department
responsibilities and operations.
an overview of the syllabus, class procedure, the semester report, plus an examination of the early days of
radio and early format development. Reading Assignment—Due Next Class: Foreword, Glossary, and
Chapter 1 Writing Assignment—Due Next Class: Broadcast Terminology Crossword Puzzle and “The
Late Paper”
Semester Report Due: Week 13
Week 4: PROGRAMMING and FORMATS—An examination of radio formats and their impact on demos and
economics. Reading Assignment—Due Next Class: Chapter 11 Writing Assignment—Due Next Class:
Consultants and Syndicators
Week 5 CONSULTANTS/SYNDICATORS—A review of the pros and cons of broadcast consultant and
syndication services. Reading Assignment—Due Next Class: Chapter 7 Writing Assignment—Due Next
Class: Promotions and Marketing
Week 11 SALES and ADVERTISING—An understanding of the techniques used in the development of a radio
sales campaign. In Class Quiz Reading Assignment—Due Next Week: Chapter 8 Writing Assignment—
Due Next Week: Traffic, Continuity, and Billing
Week 12 TRAFFIC/CONTINUITY/BILLING—A review of the financial flow and broadcast time inventory
Reading Assignment—Due Next Week: Chapter 5 Writing Assignment—Due Next Week: News and
Public Affairs
(Courtesy of Dr. Michael C. Keith, Communications Studies Department, Boston College)
PURPOSE OF COURSE: The primary purpose of this course is to introduce students to the language of radio,
as well as to the many facets constituting radio operations (business, programming, technical, and management)
and production. Students will be expected to operate all the equipment used in the process of audio mixdown
necessary for the preparation of specific on-air elements (commercial, PSA, drama, etc.). By learning this facet
COURSE OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:
xDefine the terminology related to the operation of equipment in the average size radio station and relate
the equipment to the facets of radio production discussed during the course.
xName the functions of, describe, and properly operate every piece of equipment found in the studio lab.
xDiscuss the future role which radio will play in American society.
xList and describe at least four radio formats and describe the audience and functions of each.
xThe Radio Performance version of the course emphasizes various types of performance, including disc
jockey, news, and production announcing. In schools with a fully-developed radio curriculum, this serves
as a prerequisite for continuing courses in production, programming, sales, news, and more. The radio
COURSE SCHEDULE (meetings twice weekly)
1a Intro to Class/Lab Procedures Lecture: Radio Today Read: Ch. 1
1b Lab: Radio Lab Orientation #1
5a Lecture: Records, Tape Recording, Levels, Balance, and Operating Techniques
5b Lecture: Editing/Cueing Read: Ch. 9. (Keith) Lab: Work on PSA 1
6a Lecture: Production Setup and Mixdown Read: Ch. 9
6b Lab: Work on PSA 1
7b Pass Back Midterms/Discuss Next Assignment and Aspect Paper Lab: Work on PSA 1
11a Lecture: Sales Read: Ch. 4
11b Lecture: Sales, cont. SPOT DUE
12a Lecture: Management and Economics Read: Ch. 2, 8, and 11
12b Lecture: Management and Economics (continued)
(Courtesy of Larry Miller, Asst. Professor, New England Institute of Art, Boston)
COURSE OBJECTIVES: This course is designed to teach the fundamentals of radio broadcasting,with emphasis
on the operation of equipment and performance. You will learn about disc-jockeying, news, commercial
announcing, and production. We will discuss various radio formats, ratings and on-air programming. We will use
Upon completing this course, you will be able to demonstrate the following competencies:
xA working knowledge of radio broadcasting procedures.
xUnderstanding of programming techniques and format elements.
xThe operation of broadcast equipment.
Weekly assignments will include:
xReview of the assigned textbook chapter.
xLectures and demonstrations by your instructor.
Introduction to Radio: LESSON PLAN
Each week, you will turn in a written review of key questions to the text Keith’s Radio Station (KRS).
Week 1
Topic: Introduction to course; handout syllabus and lesson plan.
Read KRS Read Ch. 1: Write an answer sheet for the take-home review.
Portfolio Project: Handout and review series of performance projects.
Week 4
Topic: TRS Ch. 3: Programming, formats, your market: Ratings. Group ownership: Who owns what?
Programming elements and the role of the disc jockey in music programming. Assign Ch. 5: News
LAB: Record and playback :60 commercial copy. Handout News format and assignment for next session.
Week 7
MIDTERM EXAM: Questions from Chapters 1, 10, 3, 5, and 9.
MIDTERM PORTFOLIO: The set of performances done so far—:30, :60, News, Produced spot.
KRS Assign Ch. 6
Handout format sheet and discuss Sweeper break.
Week 10
Topic: KRS Chap. 4: Sales: How the sales department sells airtime to advertisers; assign Ch. 2: Station
LAB: Break w/ Live :30 spot Handout format sheet for Donut spot.
Week 13
Topic: KRS Ch. 11 Consultants and syndication: Satellites, the web, and more.
The media conglomerates: Who owns what; handouts and discussion.
The morning Drive Show: Two voice break, with DJ and News.
LAB DJ vs. News: 2 voice breaks.
For part of your grade, prepare and present a portfolio of your work for this class. Your portfolio will consist of
the audio recordings of the projects themselves. It is imperative that you save all your recordings, as they will be
edited into your presentation. The long-term goal is to learn how to edit performances together for producing an
effective audition tape. The list of projects is as follows:
1. MIDTERM TAPE: Due (Date)
A. Spot: live :30
2. FINAL TAPE: Due (Date)
A. Sweeper Break: ID/BS/FP/FS/Liner/ID
xEach of these projects will have been recorded and archived.
xUsing Adobe Audition, open all your files, then edit them for presentation.
xSave the finished audio file to your folder on the hard drive.
This project must be presented on the due date; no late work will be accepted. This presentation is your ticket to
the Exam—no portfolio, no exam. If you have any questions, see your instructor.
1. Be here on time every time, ready to participate in class and present your work. Refer to the syllabus for rules
regarding attendance and tardiness.
2. Always have your work with you! Bring your textbook, binder, headphones, flash drive, and written work to
7. Practice using Adobe Audition on the computers in the radio lab.
8. No late projects or written work will be accepted. Period. If the project is not done on time, you will get an F.
9. Read the handouts! The assignment sheets explain the projects.
10. If you miss something, you must contact your instructor ASAP and get the assignments.
1. As part of your work, you will have regular projects to prepare for this class; most of these are live in-
class presentations, others will be produced in advance for presentation.
6. Record your projects on the computer hard drive.
7. Make a back-up copy on your flash drive, cassette, or minidisc.
8. You can also save your work by burning it to a cd.
9. Use the “buddy” system—work with a partner, who may know more than you do.
10. Always be sure to bring your work to class with you.
Breaks: A “break” is an interruption in the flow of music by adding the live mic or other nonmusical events,
such as commercials on cart. There are two kinds of breaks: Sweepers and Stopsets. Both are nearly the
same, except the Stopset (stop and do a set of spots) includes commercials and the Sweeper does not. A
Sweeper break is so called because it usually occurs during a music sweep, an otherwise uninterrupted set of
music which is positioned to “sweep” listeners past the quarter-hour points.
A typical Sweeper would include: ID/BS/Ad-lib/FP/FS/Liner-ID
xID: Station Identification (call letters, dial position)
A typical Stopset would include most of the above, but with the addition of spots, i.e.: ID/BS/WX
Note that each break begins and ends with the ID; a liner may be added to the first ID. In some Stopsets, the
Bumper takes the place of the live FS/Liner– ID. The FP may be positioned before the spots. Every break should
always include not only the IDs, but some kind of forward promo and a liner. When doing a forward promo to an
event outside your shift, it is called a cross-plug.
A Legal ID must be positioned as close as possible to the top of the hour without interrupting
programming, and must include the full call letters and city of license.
The primary goal of the announcer is the communication of the ideas contained in the copy. First, read the
copy carefully to be sure that you comprehend those ideas. Then, utilize all these techniques to express those
ideas effectively. Work on interpretation, mood, and emotional coloring to enhance the process. You must
always strive to create interest in the ideas being expressed.
xAll announcing is characterization or playing a role.
The following are the key points to use in proper voice production in RADIO ANNOUNCING:
1. PROJECTION: The breath is pushed up from the diaphragm against the larynx. Breathe deeply and evenly;
do not just speak to the mic, but to an imaginary listener across the room. Work to develop a full, resonant
5. STRESS/EMPHASIS: Do not read all the words with an equal amount of stress; add extra stress to key
words in a phrase.
6. STYLE: There are three styles you should try to develop in radio announcing: Live Adlib;
Produced/Commercial; and News. Live adlib announcing should sound natural and conversational. Produced
commercials call for characterization in a more exaggerated style, and news delivery should be more
The term “production” refers to any program material prerecorded for presentation on the air and most often
includes: commercials, IDs, bumpers, promos, and news sound cuts. The usual process is to record the material
from the board to the computer, edit by mixing, and then preparing the finished work for presentation. Radio
stations usually have at least two main studios: Air and Production. The production studio duplicates the air
studio so that in an emergency the operator can broadcast from the production room. Production will therefore
have a board, with a computer or digital work station, two CDs, at least two mics, and a digital cart record and
playback unit. This studio may also double as a news room.
Once you have read and understand the tasks to be done, you are ready to begin.
1. Check the board carefully to be sure that it is set up properly for the work you plan to do. Set levels; be sure
to turn off any function you do not want to use.
2. Select your production music for the bed. Check it for timings and levels. Do not read copy over vocals! Find
instrumentals; if necessary, edit to create a purely instrumental bed.
3. Turn on the mic and do a reading for levels, timing, and mix. You may want to get into the habit of recording
your rehearsal takes—sometimes you get lucky and get it right the very first try!
If using Wave Cart, open the application, and you will see your new spot on the menu. Double click on
the spot and you will see “Label.” Open this and add your info to the cart label. Follow these guidelines for
making a cart label (most of this information is in the production order):
File # Title Time (:30, :60)
Start/Kill dates
Q: “... last words!”
xFile # is a numerical coding system used by the computer to make up the Program logs. This will be the
primary means of identification.
There is a lot more to working in radio than just doing an on-air shift as a disc jockey. Many people in radio
enjoy doing production as a means of expressing their creativity and technical skills. If you view production as
an unpleasant chore, then you are limiting your potential usefulness to an employer. It is always best to
approach production work with a positive attitude of professionalism and pride in a job well done.

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