Civil Engineering Chapter 1 Homework Glossary Cut And Fill The Process Removing

Document Type
Homework Help
Book Title
Landscape Construction 3rd Edition
David Sauter
AC (alternating current). High voltage electrical
Amps. The “flow rate” of electricity in a circuit.
Architect’s scale. One of two scales used by design-
Backdrain. A valve and housing that allows water to be
drained out of an irrigation system.
Backfill. The stone, sand, and/or soil used to fill in the
void created when holes or trenches are excavated.
for most paving material. Also referred to as aggre-
gate, gravel, roadstone, and other regional names.
Batter. Backward lean of a retaining wall for stability.
Batterboards. Angled wooden frameworks used to mark
Brick set. A large chisel used to score brick and stone
surfaces, making straight breaks possible.
Bull float. A metal tool with a long handle used to smooth
and level concrete.
Butt Stairs. Stairs that have tread material that butts up
Carriage. Joist-like structural members that support
Cartesian coordinates. A measurement and layout sys-
tem that locates objects using measurements off two
baselines set at right angles to each other.
Chain saw. A gas-powered saw with sharpened chain
Circular saw. A hand-operated saw using a blade that
operates in a circular motion.
Clamshell. A hole excavator that uses two opposing
blades to remove material.
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Cut and fill. The process of removing or adding soil to a
site to achieve desired grades.
Cutoff saw. A gas-powered saw with a circular blade used
for cutting masonry and stone.
Drip line. The imaginary line on the ground directly
below the farthest extent of a plant’s canopy.
Dumpy level. A tripod-mounted telescope that can be
wood, metal, or plastic.
Emitters. Small irrigation heads that distribute water at
rates of 1/2 to 5 gallons per hour. Also called drip
heads due to the water being emitted in a slow drip.
Engineer’s scale. A scale used by designers to accommo-
that have two heads to make removal from forms
Forms. Pieces and strips of wood or metal placed to
shape concrete slabs. Forms are secured to the
ground and tops are set at the desired height for
Free-draining angular fill. Crushed stone that does not
have rounded edges or fine granular material that is
used as fill behind a wall.
French drain. A gravel-filled, subsurface trench installed
to temporarily store surface drainage.
Geotextile sock. Interwoven drainage fabric wrapped
around perforated tile to reduce infiltration of soil
into the tile.
GFCI (Ground fault circuit interrupt). A circuit engi-
neered to automatically shut off if voltage fluctua-
Head. An irrigation component that distributes water
to plants. Can use spray, flood, or drip methods to
cheek walls.
Irrigation. A system or piping, valves, and sprinklers
designed to water plant material.
Landscape fabric. Woven geotextiles used to reduce ero-
sion and weed growth.
Laser plane level. Surveying instrument that uses a
rotating light projected in a level plane to locate
Lateral line. A secondary irrigation line that carries water
from valves to irrigation heads.
Leaning Batter. Batter for a retaining wall created by tilt-
ing wall material toward the back.
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Line level. A small level hung from a stringline to deter-
mine level between two points.
Main line. A primary irrigation line that carries water to
Perforated tile. Tile with small slit openings molded into
the sides to allow water to enter the tile.
Permeable pavement. Asphalt, concrete, or segmental
pavers that are constructed with more open space
between aggregate to allow water to percolate rather
than run off surface.
Pick. A pointed tool used to chop at soil, paving, roots,
and other solid materials.
Pilot hole. A hole drilled into or through an object into
which a bolt or screw is inserted.
Plumb. Placement of an object so that it is vertical on all
Pool liner. A waterproof plastic or vinyl sheet that is used
to line water features.
Power auger. A gas powered digging tool with a spiral
blade that is turned into the ground to remove soil.
Power drill. A heavy-duty electrical drill.
Precast concrete paving block. Unit paving material
composed of molded, cured concrete. Pavers come in
a variety of shapes (H-shaped, uni-decor, S-shaped)
and colors, are 3.5 inches thick, and have a typical
average strength of 8,000 PSI.
PVC. Polyvinylchloride pipe.
Sawhorse. A device used to support materials that are to
be cut.
Scales. Ruler-like instruments used for measuring
dimensions on landscape plans. See Architect’s Scale
on which unit pavers are set.
Sidewalls. Retaining walls that run along the side of
stairs. Also called cheek walls.
Silt fence. Woven plastic fabric stretched across water-
ways to reduce soil erosion.
Skid-steer. A small end-loader that operates by
alternately moving the drive wheels in the same or
opposite directions.
Sledgehammer. A heavy hammer with flat driving
Sod cutter. A manual or motorized device used to scrape
sod with enough soil and roots that it can be trans-
Soldier course. A stacked bond of unit pavers placed
around the edge of a paved area. Used to eliminate
the placement of cut pavers against edge restraint.
Stretcher bar. A long, thin metal bar inserted through
chain link fence fabric and clamped to a post to hold
fence fabric taut.
Stringer. A structural support for railing or fence surfacing.
Stringline. String used to identify the location and/or
elevation of the edge of a project.
Sump. A recessed area at the bottom of an inlet that
captures runoff.
Survey rod. A pole-like instrument with markings on one
side that is used to calculate heights when observed
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Trowel. A wedge-shaped metal hand tool used to mix
and place mortar or concrete.
Valve. A mechanical device used to regulate the flow of
Valve Manifold. A series of valves placed at the beginning
of an irrigation system to control the water distrib-
uted to irrigation zones.
Verticals. Ties or timbers placed with the long dimension
set vertically; usually buried in front of a wall to pre-
vent the wall from falling forward.
Vibratory plate compactor. A self-propelled tool with a
motor that vibrates a large metal plate mounted on
Watt. A measure of the amount of electricity being used
whereas Ohms is a measure of electrical resistance.
Weepholes. Openings in the face of a retaining wall that
allow water to drain from behind the wall.
Wet masonry saw. A table-mounted circular saw that
uses water to aid in cutting masonry materials.
Wheelbarrow. A metal tub with handles and wheels used
to haul small amounts of material.
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