II. Quotes: These can be used to introduce topics, question perspectives, or gain individual opinion.
Providing students with a quote and prompting them to write or reflect on their personal feelings
about the quote can help to spark discussion and interest. Suggested prompts may include “Define this
concept in your own words”; “Do you agree with this statement? Explain”; “What text material can be
used to support or refute this idea?”
There is nothing in the world like a persuasive speech to fuddle the mental apparatus.
By persuading others, we convince ourselves.
Nothing is as frustrating as arguing with someone who knows what he’s talking about.
III. Pass out several magazines or newspapers and direct students to the letters to the editor and
editorial sections. Ask students to get into groups and find examples of the hasty generalization, false
cause, and ad hominem fallacies in the editorial material. Was it easy or hard to find these fallacies?
Do these fallacies ever serve the purpose of persuasion? If so, can they be supported as ethical? If
not, why do speakers use such fallacious reasoning?
IV. Speakers can use both positive and negative emotional appeals to increase audience involvement.
What kinds of topics do you think lend themselves to negative emotional appeals? Which are more
likely to involve positive appeals? Which do you think is more effective overall, a negative or a
positive emotional appeal? Why?
Access cengagebrain.com and locate Web Link: Evoking Negative and Positive Emotions. What
emotions will you attempt to arouse in your speech, positive or negative? How?
Miracle on 34th Street (1947)
Synopsis: A very jolly Kris Kringle is attending the Macy’s Thanksgiving Day parade when he notices
that the actor cast as Santa Claus is drunk. Indignant, he confronts the events coordinator, who in
turn convinces Kringle to play the part in a pinch. He does such a good job that she hires him on the
spot to be the store Santa for Macy’s in New York City. Once there, his belief that he is the real Santa
starts to become more obvious, and his sanity comes into question. An argument with the Macy store
psychologist leads to further problems, and after getting himself committed to mental hospital, Kringle
finds himself in the unlikely position of being put on trial to prove that he is actually the real Santa