Type
Quiz
Book Title
The Art of Public Speaking 13th Edition
ISBN 13
978-1260412932

978-1260412932 Chapter 7 Lecture Note

July 28, 2020
Gathering Materials
Chapter Objectives
After reading this chapter, students should be able to:
1. Explain how drawing on their own knowledge and experience can enrich their
speeches.
2. Explain the major resources available for researching speeches in the library.
3. Explain how to use the Internet for speech research efficiently and responsibly.
4. Delineate the three stages of interviewing and explain the responsibilities of the
interviewer at each stage.
5. Follow the four tips for doing research discussed in the chapter.
7
Chapter Outline
I. A speaker’s own knowledge and experience can be a valuable resource for information
on a speech topic.
A. We usually speak best about topics with which we are familiar.
B. Supplementing facts and figures from books with personal experience can add color
and emotion to a speech.
II. Library research is an important source of material for speeches.
A. Librarians are an excellent resource.
B. The catalog lists all the books, periodicals, and other resources owned by the library.
C. Reference works contain a wealth of information about almost any topic.
1. Encyclopedias provide accurate, objective information on a wide range of
subjects.
2. Yearbooks are annual publications that are invaluable for current information.
3. Quotation books can be useful, especially for introductions and conclusions.
4. Biographical aids provide information about people in the news.
D. Newspaper and periodical databases are invaluable for research on many topics.
E. Academic databases are the best way to find scholarly research.
III. When used responsibly and efficiently, the Internet can be a powerful tool for speech
research.
A. Search engines are the key to finding materials on the Internet.
B. In addition to search engines, there are specialized resources for finding materials on
the Internet.
1. Government resources allow instant access to an endless number of government
documents and publications.
2. Wikipedia can be a valuable online resource when it is used critically and in
conjunction with other research materials.
C. There are three primary criteria for evaluating the quality of documents found on the
Internet.
1. If possible, one should assess the objectivity and expertise of a document’s
author.
2. If there is no identifiable author, one should assess the sponsoring organization
that produced the document.
3. Regardless of authorship or sponsorship, it is important to check the recency of
the document.
IV. Interviewing people with specialized knowledge is another way to gather materials for a
speech.
A. The first stage in the interviewing process takes place before the interview.
1. The interview process begins when a speaker formulates a purpose for the
interview.
2. Once the purpose of the interview is clear, a speaker must decide whom to
interview and set up an appointment with that person.
3. Next the speaker needs to decide whether or not to record the interview.
4. The most important task before the interview is preparing the questions to be asked.
B. The second stage of the interview process takes place during the interview itself.
1. It is important to dress appropriately and to show up on time.
2. It is a good idea at the outset to restate the purpose of the interview so as to
refresh the interviewee’s memory.
3. If the interviewee consents to having the interview recorded, the equipment
should be set up quickly and inconspicuously.
4. The most important part of the interview is asking the questions.
5. In addition to asking good questions, the interviewer must listen carefully to the
answers.
6. Finally, the interviewer should try not to exceed the stipulated time period for the
interview.
C. The third stage of the interview process takes place after the interview.
1. While the interview is still fresh, the researcher should review her or his notes.
2. As soon as possible after the interview, the researcher should transcribe ideas and
information from the interview into the same format as the rest of her or his
research notes.
V. Regardless of which resources speakers rely on in gathering speech materials, there are
several ways to make their research more productive.
A. It is imperative that speakers begin their research early.
B. Speakers should create a preliminary bibliography of research sources.
C. Speakers can save time and energy by taking research notes efficiently.
1. They should take plenty of notes.
2. They should record notes in a consistent format and make a subject heading for
each note.
3. They should make a separate entry for each note.
4. They should distinguish among direct quotations, paraphrases, and their own ideas.
D. The research process is most productive when speakers think about their materials as
they research.
Exercises for Critical Thinking
(from text page 133)
1. Using one of the periodical and newspaper databases discussed on page 118 of the textbook,
find three magazine or newspaper articles on the topic of your next speech. Prepare a prelim-
inary bibliography entry for each article. Read the full text of the articles and assess their val-
ue for your speech.
2. Using Google or another search engine, find three high-quality documents on the topic of
your next speech. Prepare a preliminary bibliography entry for each article. Read the full text
of the documents and assess them in light of the criteria for evaluating Internet documents
discussed on pages 122125 of the textbook.
3. Plan to conduct an interview for one of your classroom speeches. Be sure to follow the guide-
lines presented in this chapter for effective interviewing. Afterward, evaluate the interview.
Did you prepare for it adequately? Did you get the information you needed? What would you
do differently if you could conduct the interview again?
Using Public Speaking in Your Career
(from text page 124)
After receiving your master’s degree in education administration, you took a job at the state de-
partment of education. At the request of the governor, your section of the department has developed
a new early childhood intervention program for children from impoverished households.
Now you have been asked to help publicize the program and to build support for it. You will be
speaking to church groups, teachers’ associations, family advocacy groups, and others with an
interest in children’s welfare. You want to prepare a talk that makes good use of statistics and expert
testimony to demonstrate the value of early childhood education programs, especially for poor
children.
As part of your research, you decide to look on the Web for supporting materials. List three
reputable Web sites that provide useful statistics or testimony on the value of early childhood edu-
cation. Explain why each Web site is reputable and list one statistic or expert quotation you obtain
from each source.
Additional Exercises and Activities
1. Arrange for your students to take a tour of the campus library. Students should read Chapter 7
before the tour, and they should be assigned application exercises from the chapter after the tour.
2. Distribute the “Bibliography Formats” guide, which appears on pages 124129 of this manual.
This guide is an extended version of the sample bibliography formats that appear on page 130
of the textbook.
3. Using the Library Research Worksheet on page 122 of this manual, have students find three
articles on the topic of their next speech. The articles can be from periodicals or newspapers.
In addition to finding the articles, students should provide proper bibliographic citations and
answer the questions listed on the worksheet.
4. Using the Internet Research Worksheet on page 123 of this manual, have students find two
Internet documents on the topic of their next speech. In addition to finding the documents,
students should provide proper bibliographic citations and answer the questions listed on the
Library Research Worksheet
Name Section
Topic
Find three articles in the library on the subject of your next speech. The articles can be from period-
icals or newspapers. Provide a complete citation for each article following the bibliography format
required by your instructor and answer the questions about each article.
1. Article:
Did you locate this article through a periodical and newspaper database? Yes ! No !
If you answered yes, what is the name of the database?
If you answered no, how did you locate the article?
Why will the article be useful for your speech? Be specific.
2. Article:
Did you locate this article through a periodical and newspaper database? Yes ! No !
If you answered yes, what is the name of the database?
If you answered no, how did you locate the article?
Why will the article be useful for your speech? Be specific.
3. Article:
Did you locate this article through a periodical and newspaper database? Yes ! No !
If you answered yes, what is the name of the database?
If you answered no, how did you locate the article?
Why will the article be useful for your speech? Be specific.
Internet Research Worksheet
Name Section
Topic
Find two documents from the Internet on the subject of your next speech. Provide a complete
citation for each article following the bibliography format required by your instructor and an-
swer the questions about each document.
1. Document:
Did you locate this document through a search engine? Yes ! No !
If you answered yes, what is the name of the search engine?
If you answered no, how did you locate the document?
Why will the document be useful for your speech? Be specific.
Explain why the author or sponsoring organization for this document should be accepted as a
credible source on your speech topic.
2. Document:
Did you locate this document through a search engine? Yes ! No !
If you answered yes, what is the name of the search engine?
If you answered no, how did you locate the document?
Why will the document be useful for your speech? Be specific.
Explain why the author or sponsoring organization for this document should be accepted as a
credible source on your speech topic.
Bibliography Formats
Book: Single Author
Cantú, Francisco. The Line Becomes a River: Dispatches from the Border. New
York: Riverhead Books, 2018. Print.
Cantú, F. (2018). The line becomes a river: Dispatches from the border. New York:
Riverhead Books.
Book: Two or More Authors
Leavy, Patricia, and Anne Harris. Contemporary Feminist Research from Theory to
Practice. New York: Guilford Press, 2018. Print.
Leavy, P., & Harris, A. (2018). Contemporary feminist research from theory to
practice. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Book: Second or Later Edition
Carolan, Michael. The Real Cost of Cheap Food. 2nd ed. Abingdon: Routledge,
2018. Print
Carolan, M. (2018). The real cost of cheap food (2nd ed.). Abingdon: Routledge.
Book: Corporate Author
American Bar Association. Zero Tolerance: Best Practices for Combatting Sex-
Based Harassment in the Legal Profession. Chicago, IL: American Bar
Association, 2018. Print.
American Bar Association. (2018). Zero tolerance: Best practices for combatting
sex-based harassment in the legal profession. Chicago, IL: American Bar
Association.
Book: Anthology or Compilation
Leitch, Vincent B., et al., eds. The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. 3rd
ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2018. Print.
Leitch, V. B., et al. (Eds.). (2018). The Norton anthology of theory and criticism.
(3rd ed.). New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
Chapter in Anthology or Compilation
Nijhuis, Michelle. “The Parks of Tomorrow.” The Best American Science and Na-
ture Writing 2017. Ed. Hope Jahren. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Har-
court, 2017. 131–137. Print.
Nijhuis, M. (2017). The parks of tomorrow. In H. Jahren (Ed.), The best American
science and nature writing 2017 (pp. 131137). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Harcourt.
Signed Magazine Article
White, Ronald C. “Notes to Self: Lincoln’s Private Thoughts on Fate, Failure,
Slavery, and Belief.” Harper’s Feb. 2018: 4952. Print.
White, R. C. (2018, February). Notes to self: Lincoln’s private thoughts on fate,
failure, slavery, and belief. Harper’s 336(2013), 4952.
Unsigned Magazine Article
“How ‘Identitarian’ Politics Is Changing Europe.” The Economist, 28 Mar. 2018,
www.economist.com/news/europe/21739668-having-learned-identity-politics-
left-right-wingers-are-shaping. Accessed 2 Apr. 2018.
How “identitarian” politics is changing Europe. (2018, March 28). The Economist.
Retrieved from www.economist.com/news/europe/21739668-having-learned-
identity-politics-left-right-wingers-are-shaping
Online Magazine Article
Billock, Jennifer. “How Korea’s Demilitarized Zone Became an Accidental
Wildlife Paradise.” Smithsonian. 12 Feb. 2018. Web. 25 Feb. 2018.
Billock, J. (2018, February 12). How Korea’s demilitarized zone became an
accidental wildlife paradise. Smithsonian. Retrieved from
https://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/wildlife-thrives-dmz-korea-risk-
location-180967842/
Print Journal Article
Czerwiec, M. K. “Representing AIDS in Comics.” AMA Journal of Ethics 20.2
(2018): 199205. Print.
Czerwiec, M. K. (2018). Representing AIDS in comics. AMA Journal of Ethics,
20(2): 199205.
126
Online Journal Article
Shiao, Jiannbin Lee. “A Comparative Approach to Social Differences.”
Contemporary Sociology 47.2 (2018): 132136. ProQuest. Web. 5 April
2018.
Shiao, J. L. (2018). A comparative approach to social differences. Contemporary
Sociology 47(2): 132136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0094306118755390a.
Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com/docview/2007288231
Print Newspaper Article
Pinker, Susan. “Why Aren’t There More Women in Science and Technology?” The
Wall Street Journal. 1 Mar. 2018: E7. Print.
Pinker, S. (2018, March 1). Why aren’t there more women in science and technolo-
gy? The Wall Street Journal, p. E7.
Online Newspaper Article
Pinker, Susan. “Why Aren’t There More Women in Science and Technology?” The
Wall Street Journal. 1 Mar. 2018. Web. 5 Mar. 2018.
Pinker, S. (2018, March 1). Why aren’t there more women in science and technolo-
gy? The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from
https://www.wsj.com/articles/why-arent-there-more-women-in-science-and-
technology-1519918657
Newspaper Editorial
Bajas, Vikas. “The Bright, Shiny Distraction of Self-Driving Cars.” Editorial. The
New York Times. 31 Mar. 2018,
www.nytimes.com/2018/03/31/opinion/distraction-self-driving-cars.html. Ac-
cessed 2 Apr. 2018.
Bajas, V. The bright, shiny distraction of self-driving cars [Editorial]. The New
York Times. Retrieved from
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/31/opinion/distraction-self-driving-
cars.html
Online News Source
Perkins, Tom. “We Need More Black-Owned Grocery Stores.” Slate. Slate, 11 Jan.
2018. Web. 2 Mar. 2018.
Perkins, T. (2018, January 11). We need more black-owned grocery stores. Slate.
Retrieved from https://slate.com/business/2018/01/how-do-we-get-more-black-
owned-grocery-stores.html
Government Publication
United States Geological Survey, Status and Trends Program. “Wyoming Landscape
Conservation Initiative.” Jan. 2018. Web. 15 Feb. 2018.
United States Geological Survey, Status and Trends Program. (2018). Wyoming
Landscape Conservation Initiative.” Retrieved from
https://www.usgs.gov/science/mission-areas/ecosystems/status-and-trends-
program/science/wyoming-landscape-conservation?qt-
science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects
Article in Reference Work
Lekakis, Eleftheria J. “Buying into the Nation: The Politics of Consumption and
Nationalism.” The SAGE Handbook of Consumer Culture. Ed. Olga Kravets.
Washington, DC: Sage Publishing, February 2018.
Lekakis, E. J. (2018). Buying into the nation: The politics of consumption and
nationalism. In O. Kravits, (Ed.), The SAGE Handbook of Consumer Culture
(pp. 702723). Washington, DC: Sage Publishing.
Personal Interview
Pasare, Liviu. Personal interview. 8 Mar. 2018.
Pasare, L. (personal communication, March 8, 2018).
Letter or E-Mail Communication
Brzezicki, Liz. Message to the author. 13 Mar. 2018. Email.
Brzezicki, L. (personal communication, March 13, 2018).
Speech or Lecture
Matheny, Jason. “The Public Policy Challenges of Artificial Intelligence.” JFK Jr.
Forum at the Institute of Politics. Harvard University. 15 Feb. 2018. Lecture.
Matheny, J. (2018, February 15). The public policy challenges of artificial
intelligence. Lecture presented at the JFK Jr. Forum at the Institute of Politics.
Harvard University.
Television Program
The Gang Crackdown.” Narr. Will Lyman. Frontline. PBS. WMPB,
Baltimore, 13 Feb. 2018. Television.
Lyman, W. (Narrator). (2018). The gang crackdown [Television series episode]. In
M. Gaviria, N. August-Perna, & V. Richards (Producers), Frontline. Baltimore,
MD: WMPB Educational Foundation.
Film
Dark Money. Dir. Kimberly Reed. Big Sky Film Productions, 2018. Film.
Reed, K. (Producer/director). (2018). Dark Money [Motion picture]. United States:
Big Sky Film Productions.
YouTube Video
Yeung, Isobel. The Monumental Effort to Rid the World’s Oceans from Plastic.
Vice News. YouTube. Web. 6 Feb. 2018.
Yeung, I. Vice News (Producer). (2018, February 6). The monumental effort to rid
the world’s oceans from plastic [video file]. YouTube. Retrieved from
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=74YQWthFz8g
Podcast
“Rosa Parks: Agent of Change.” Stuff You Should Know. HowStuffWorks, 22 Feb.
2018.
Rosa Parks: Agent of change. (2018, February 22). [Audio podcast]. On Stuff You
Should Know. Retrieved from
https://www.stuffyoushouldknow.com/podcasts/rosa-parks-agent-change.htm
Blog
NPF Blog. “Honoring the Culture of Gila Cliff Dwellings.” National Park
Foundation Blog, 30 Jan.
2018, www.nationalparks.org/connect/blog/honoring-culture-gila-cliff-
dwellings. Accessed 14 Mar. 2018.
National Park Foundation Blog. (2018, January 30). Honoring the culture of Gila
cliff dwellings. Retrieved
from https://www.nationalparks.org/connect/blog/honoring-culture-gila-cliff-
dwellings
Ebook
Agrawal, Roma. Built: The Hidden Stories Behind Our Structures. New York:
Bloomsbury, 2018. Kindle Edition.
Agrawal, R. (2018). Built: The hidden stories behind our structures. [Kindle
version]. Retrieved from Amazon.com
Tweet
@Sea_Legacy. “We love #OurBluePlanet because it is resilient, but there is a
breaking point and the ocean needs our help. Only 1% of the world’s oceans are
protected?! We must do better. @BBCEarth, #TurningTheTide Photo:
@PaulNicklen.” Twitter, 3 Mar. 2018, 10:54
p.m., twitter.com/Sea_Legacy/status/970130345176678400.
Sea Legacy. [Sea_Legacy]. (2018, March 3). We love #OurBluePlanet because it is
resilient, but there is a breaking point and the ocean needs our help. Only 1%
of the world’s oceans are protected?! We must do better. @BBCEarth,
#TurningTheTide Photo: @PaulNicklen [Tweet]. Retrieved
from https://twitter.com/Sea_Legacy/status/970130345176678400