b. The Puritans made no real attempt to convert the Indians in the first two decades.
E. The Pequot War
1. As the white population grew, conflict with the Indians became unavoidable, and the turning point
came when a fur trader was killed by Pequots.
F. The New England Economy
1. Most migrants were textile craftsmen and farmers.
2. Fishing and timber were exported, but the economy centered on family farms.
G. The Merchant Elite
1. Per capita wealth was more equally distributed in New England than in the Chesapeake.
2. A powerful merchant class rose up, assuming a growing role based on trade within the British empire.
3. Some clashed with the church and left to establish a new town, Portsmouth, in New Hampshire.
H. The Half-Way Covenant
1. By 1650, many Massachusetts residents, children of the Great Migration generation, had been baptized
as infants but could not prove they had undergone the conversion experience necessary for full church
4. As church membership stagnated, ministers castigated the people for various sins.
VII. Religion, Politics, and Freedom
A. The Rights of Englishmen
1. By 1600, the idea that certain rights of Englishmen applied to all within the kingdom had developed
alongside the traditional definition of liberties.
2. This tradition rested on the Magna Carta, which was signed by King John in 1215.
a. It identified a series of liberties that barons found to be the most beneficial.
3. The Magna Carta over time came to embody the idea of English freedom.
4. The belief in freedom as the common heritage of all Englishmen and the conception of the British empire
as the world’s guardian of liberty helped to legitimize English colonization.
5. Who Is an American? (primary source document feature)
a. Henry Care, English Liberties, Or, The Free-Born Subject’s Inheritance (1680)