14. What is cluster sampling and when would you use it?
In cluster sampling, the population is divided into subgroups, called “clusters,” each of which
may represent the entire population. An application is area sampling where the researcher
15. What is stratified sampling and when would you use it?
Stratified sampling separates the population into different subgroups, or strata, and then
16. How would you use XL Data Analyst to generate random numbers?
The menu sequence is “Calculate—Random #’s,” and the selection window allows you to
17. Explain how you would use the skip interval in a systematic sample if you had to draw a
sample from your city telephone directory.
First, to begin at a random starting point, select a page of the directory using a table of
random numbers. If there are X columns on each page, select a random number from 1 to X.
And, after taking a sample of a few columns, you conclude there are about ## listings per
18. Would you use a proportionate or disproportionate stratified sample? Why?
A proportionate sample size would occur if we allocated sample size based upon each
stratum’s proportionate share of the total population. A disproportionate sample is any other
allocation which would occur if we based our sample size per stratum not on its
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