Book Title
Basic Marketing Research: Using Microsoft Excel Data Analysis 3rd Edition

978-0135078228 Chapter 7 Solution Manual Part 1

June 7, 2019
1. List each of the three basic question-response formats. Indicate the two variations for
each one, and provide an example for each.
The answers are contained in the following table.
Format type Variation(s) Example
response format
response format
Metric response
2. What is measurement? In your answer, differentiate an object from its properties,
both objective and subjective.
Measurement is defined as determining the description or amount of some element
of interest to the researcher. One measures the “properties,” or specific features or
characteristics of an object that can be used to distinguish it from another object.
3. Discuss the meaning of an operational definition. How does a researcher use an
operational definition? Provide an example of the operational definition for each of
the following:
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a. Likelihood of buying car X
Likelihood can be a probability or the changes of doing something in the
b. Media habits such as reading the newspaper
Depending on the objectives of the research, the operational definition might
be what section of the paper is read.
c. Attitude toward global warming
Please indicate the degree to which you agree with each of the following
Disagree Neither
nor Agree
Agree Strongly
I am worried about
global warming.
We should use
alternative fuels to
lessen global
4. How does reliability differ from validity? In your answer, define each term.
A reliable scale is one in which a respondent responds in the same or in a very
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5. What is meant by the “level of measurement”? Identify and define the two levels of
measurement described in this chapter.
When a researcher specifies an operational definition for the measurement of a
property of a construct, he/she explicitly identifies the response scale’s level of
6. Distinguish a synthetic number scale from a synthetic label scale. What do these two
types of scales have in common, and how do they differ?
A synthetic number metric scale is one where the researcher uses a number range
such as 1–5, 1–7, 1–10, and so forth. A synthetic number only has meaning in the
7. Answer the following question: “Why is it important for a researcher to know the
level of a scale that he or she uses to measure a property of a construct of interest?”
The choice of the level of measurement for a scale affects which analyses should or
8. Distinguish a symmetric synthetic scale from a nonsymmetric synthetic scale. Provide
an example of each of these types of scales.
A symmetric scale has equal amounts of positive and negative positions. However, a
9. Explain what is meant by a continuum along which a subjective property of an object
can be measured.
Many scales are designed to measure psychological properties that exist on a
10. What are the arguments for and against the inclusion of a neutral response position
in a symmetric scale?
A neutral point is not considered zero or an origin; instead, it is considered a
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11. Distinguish among a modified Likert scale, a semantic differential scale, and a Stapel
The modified Likert scale uses degrees of agreement and disagreement (strongly
12. What is the halo effect, and when and how does a researcher control for it?
The halo effect is a general feeling about a store or brand that can bias a respondent’s
impression on its specific properties because the respondent does not read the specific
13. What consideration should be foremost in a researcher’s decision to use a
symmetric synthetic rating scale versus a nonsymmetric one?
Ideally, when a synthetic scale is used in a survey, the researcher wants respondents to
use all of the scale positions, meaning that for any one question, the responses should
14. Distinguish among a one-way labeled scale and an n-point scale.
A one-way labeled scale is one where the researcher is measuring some construct
attribute with the use of labels that restrict the measure to the “positive” side. The
15. What is an “anchor” and how does an anchor give a context to an n-point scale?
The anchored n-point scale is one where a word is associated with the “1” and the
“n” points on the scale. The anchors are important as they tell the respondent the
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16. Mike, the owner of Mike's Market, which is a convenience store, is concerned about
low sales. He reads in a marketing textbook that the image of a store often has an
impact on its ability to attract its target market. He contacts the All-Right Research
Company and commissions you, a marketing researcher, to conduct a study that will
shape his store’s image. You are charged with the responsibility of developing the
store-image part of the questionnaire.
Design a semantic differential scale that will measure the relevant aspects of the
market’s image. In your work on this scale, you must do the following: (a) brainstorm
a. Possible store properties— location, checkout speed, value for the price,
b. The bipolar adjectives should appear thusly—inconvenient location—
c. Usually, 5- or 7-scale points are customary. If the respondents are unfamiliar
17. Each of the following examples involves a market researchers need to measure some
construct. Devise an appropriate scale for each one. Defend the scale in terms of its
level of measurement and use or nonuse of a “no opinion” or neutral response
a. Mattel wants to know how preschool children react to a sing-along video
game in which the child must sing along with an animated character and
guess the next word in the song at various points in the video.
b. TCBY is testing five new flavors of yogurt and wants to know how its
customers rate each one on sweetness, flavor strength, and richness of taste.
TCBY needs evaluations on three subjective properties based on taste tests of
each yogurt flavor. Considerations include the following: There is no need for
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Here is an example of the sweetness scale:
c. A pharmaceutical company wants to find out how much a new federal law
eliminating dispensing of free sample prescription drugs by doctors will affect
their intentions to prescribe generic versus brand-name drugs for their
This is an instance of measuring intentions so a 0 percent to 100 percent
The modified Likert scale is also acceptable, for example:
18. Harley-Davidson is the largest American motorcycle manufacturer, and it has been in
business for several decades. Harley-Davidson has expanded into “signature”
products such as shirts that prominently display the Harley-Davidson logo. Some
people have a negative image of Harley-Davidson because it was the motorcycle
favored by the Hell’s Angels and other motorcycle gangs. There are two research
questions here. First, do consumers have a negative feeling toward Harley-Davidson,
and, second, are they disinclined toward the purchase of Harley-Davidson
signature products such as shirts, belts, boots, jackets, sweatshirts, lighters, and key
chains? Design a Likert measurement scale that can he used in a nationwide
telephone study to address these two issues.
The task is for students to design a modified Likert scale amenable to telephone
(INTERVIEWER: READ) “I have a list of statements that I will read to you. As I
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Are the instructions clear? (IF NOT, REPEAT)
“Would you say that you STRONGLY (dis)agree or SOMEWHAT (dis)agree?”
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A different approach is to read off all the response alternatives to the respondent. It would
look something like this:
19. Family Dollar store believes it has a niche market, and that its image in the minds of its
customers is the following: a self-service store with bargain prices and no sales hassles but
with reasonably fast checkout and for household and clothing items that are functional.
Construct a Stapel scale approach that would measure Family Dollars image to determine
the extent to which customers have an opinion consistent with Family Dollar’s belief.
The Stapel scale is has a +/- number format. Here is an example of how this scale can be used
Indicate your opinion of Family Dollar store by circling the appropriate number. A high
Bargains Checkout speed Sales hassles Functional
20. Pick any fast food chain (McDonald’s, KFC, etc.) and construct a scale that measures the
performance of that chain’s units. Use a one-way labeled scale that measures the chain on at
least five performance attributes that you think are relevant. Be sure to include any
instructions for the respondents.
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Please rate (insert fast-food chain name here) by circling the appropriate word for each
Characteristic Your Rating
Poor Fair Good Very Good
21. Check in your library’s catalog for one of the handbooks mentioned in this chapter on
marketing scales. Find a scale, and describe the construct the scale measures and show the
scale items used to measure the construct. Also describe any measures of the reliability and
validity of the scale as reported in the handbook.
The handbooks are listed in Marketing Research Application 7.1. Instructors should check
with their librarians to see if these resources are available. A back-up is to use Gordon
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