Book Title
Basic Marketing Research: Using Microsoft Excel Data Analysis 3rd Edition

978-0135078228 Chapter 6 Lecture Note

June 7, 2019
Data Collection Methods
To learn the four basic alternative modes for gathering survey data
To understand the advantages and disadvantages of each of the alternative data
gathering modes
To become knowledgeable about the details of different types of survey data
collection methods such as personal interviews, telephone interviews, and
computer-assisted interviews, including online surveys
To comprehend the factors researchers consider when choosing a particular survey
Four Alternative Data Collection Modes
Person-Administered Surveys
Advantages of Person-Administered Surveys
Quality Control
Disadvantages of Person-Administered Surveys
Humans Error
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Interview Evaluation
Computer-Assisted Surveys
Advantages of Computer-Administered Surveys
Error-Free Interviews
Pictures, Videos, and Graphics
Real-Time Capture of Data
Reduced Interview Evaluation
Disadvantages of Computer-Administered Surveys
Technical Skills Required
High Setup Costs
Self-Administered Surveys
Advantages of Self-Administered Surveys
Reduced Cost
Respondent Control
No Interview-Evaluation Apprehension
Disadvantages of Self-Administered Surveys
Respondent Errors
Lack of Supervision
Stand-alone Questionnaire
Mixed-Mode Surveys
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Advantage of Mixed-Mode Surveys
Disadvantage of Mixed-Mode Surveys
Descriptions of Data Collection Methods
Person-Administered Surveys
In-Home Interviews
Mall-Intercept Interviews
In-Office Interviews
Central Location Telephone Interviews
Computer-Assisted Surveys
Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATIs)
Fully Computerized Interviews (Not Online)
Online Interviews
Self-Administered Surveys
Mail Surveys
Group-Administered Surveys
Drop-Off Surveys
Deciding Which Survey Method to Use
How Much Time Do I Have for Data Collection?
How Much Money Do I Have for Data Collection?
What Type of Respondent Interaction Is Required?
Are There Special Considerations to Take into Account?
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Central location telephone interviewing
Completely automated telephone survey (CATS)
Computer-administered survey
Computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI)
Drop-off survey
Fully computerized interviews
Group self-administered survey
Incidence rate
In-home interview
In-office interviews
Internet-based questionnaire
Interview evaluation
Mail survey
Mall-intercept interview
Mixed-mode survey
Person-administered survey
Self-administered survey
Self-selection bias
1. A field trip to a local telephone interview company does a great deal in the way of
illustrating how this survey mode operates. If there is an interview service in your
city, consider such a field trip, or if this is not feasible, have a representative from the
company speak to the class about the company’s operations.
2. It is possible to illustrate self-selection bias in students with a quick exercise. Give
students the following set of topics and have them indicate how they would respond
to a mail survey request in each case. Use a show of hands or actual count of the
responses to illustrate that some topics are inherently interesting and garner more
response than uninteresting topics.
Instructions: You pick up your mail, and you find a mail survey in it. How likely
would you be to take 15 minutes to fill out the questionnaire and return it if it
concerned each of the following topics?
Would you fill out the survey and send it back?
Topic Definitely Definitely Unsure
Would Would Not
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Automobile maintenance _____ _____ _____
Dental hygiene _____ _____ _____
Personal safety on campus _____ _____ _____
Baby care _____ _____ _____
Recycling _____ _____ _____
Foreign trade with Chile _____ _____ _____
3. A large number of studies have addressed mail survey response rates. Have each
student select a single incentive tactic such as an advance postcard or monetary
incentive, and perform research on it, ideally, with some database search service
maintained by your university library or otherwise available to your students. Instruct
students to prepare a 3–5 minute summary class presentation on their topics.
4. Incidence rates can be illustrated with students’ families. With a show of hands,
determine the percent of students whose parents now own each of the following: (1) a
cat, (2) a Ford pickup truck, (3) a digital video camera, (4) a riding mower, and (5) an
American Automobile Association membership. The percentages will be analogous to
incidence rates.
5 . Ask students what creative approaches can be taken when a researcher requires a
large amount of information from respondents. Suppose, for instance, that a
researcher is investigating attitudes toward the preservation of natural habitats, and
the survey includes a battery of lifestyle questions, many attitude questions on
wildlife and habitat preservation, extensive demographics, plus many opinion
questions on specific state parks, national parks, public lands, and recreational areas.
The questionnaire takes 60 minutes to complete when self-administered, and 1 hour
and 30 minutes to complete when administered by an interviewer. What approaches
can be used to overcome this amount of information difficulty?
Some suggestions that may arise from class discussion include:
Divide the questions into three or four surveys and administer them at separate
times to the same respondents
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Provide a very large incentive (say, a lottery of $500)
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Pay respondents for their time
Send out a huge number of mail surveys and see what comes back
Pay interviewers extra compensation for completing over a certain number
6. Describe the survey method selection phase of a recent survey with which you have been
involved. Describe the survey’s circumstances, what modes were considered, and how the
final selection was made.
7. Privacy issues continually challenge marketing researchers who conduct surveys. Students
protect their privacy just as do typical consumers. Ask students to identify the various ways
they protect their telephone privacy (such as answering machines, caller identification, etc.),
and for each one have them discuss the challenge(s) posed to marketing researchers. What
can researchers do to entice consumers to take part in surveys? This topic can quickly
degenerate to telemarketer bashing, so be prepared to divert the discussion toward what
strategies ethical marketing researchers might consider in order to increase response rates.
Related to this topic is the National “Do Not Call” Registry (www.donotcall.gov). Ask how
many students are registered and whether or not they have noticed a decrease in
telemarketing phone calls. Most students will mistakenly believe that marketing research
calls are blocked by the Do Not Call system; however, they will be mistaken as bona fide
marketing research companies are not blocked.
8. Computer-assisted interview and web-based formats are steadily advancing and evolving.
There may be articles in the Marketing News, Quirk’s Marketing Research Review, or other
marketing research practitioner literature that describe variations or the pros and cons of the
various types. Alternatively, students can do a simple Internet search and find companies
with these products and services. Most have extensive descriptions of their capabilities and
many offer trial usage. Have students share their findings either with short presentations or in
a discussion format.
9. In this edition, we did not include “traditional telephone interview” as this method is rarely
used. If students inquire about the omission, this is the answer. Alternatively, you might ask
them to add traditional telephone interviews. The key advantage is fast turnaround relative to
face-to-face or mail alternatives, whereas the key disadvantage is control as interviewers
cannot be monitored or supervised while working. A comment is that traditional telephone
interviewing is an option when other telephone data collection methods are unavailable or
too expensive.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall