Book Title
Basic Marketing Research: Using Microsoft Excel Data Analysis 3rd Edition

978-0135078228 Chapter 4 Solution Manual Part 1

June 7, 2019
1. What are the independent, dependent, and possible extraneous variables in our chapter
opening vignette written by Herb Sorenson?
The opening vignette describes somewhat generically a number of experiments specific to a
snack company’s placement of chips and nuts/seeds in convenience stores. The independent
variable is placement (shelf location and merchandise configuration are mentioned), and the
2. Give some examples illustrating the uses of exploratory research.
Exploratory research is most commonly unstructured, informal research that is undertaken
to gain background information about the general nature of the research problem.
Exploratory research is very flexible in that it allows the researcher to investigate whatever
sources he or she desires and to the extent he or she feels it is necessary in order to gain a
3. What type of research design answers the questions of who, what, where, when, and how?
4. What are the differences between longitudinal studies and cross-sectional studies?
Cross-sectional studies measure units from a sample of the population at only one point in
5. In what situation would a continuous panel be more suitable than a discontinuous panel? In
what situation would a discontinuous panel be more suitable than a continuous panel?
Continuous panels ask panel members the same questions on each panel measurement,
With continuous panels, panel members are asked to record the same information (grocery
store purchases) over and over. The essential point is that panel members are asked to record
The discontinuous panel’s primary usefulness is that it represents a large group—people,
stores, or some other entity that is agreeable to providing marketing research information.
6. What type of panel is an omnibus panel?
Discontinuous panels are sometimes referred to as omnibus panels. (Omnibus means—
including or covering many things or classes.) They may be used for a variety of purposes,
and the information collected by a discontinuous panel varies from one panel measurement to
7. Explain why studies of the “if-then” variety are considered to be causal studies.
By definition, causality may be thought of as understanding a phenomenon in terms of
8. Define each of the following types of variables and give an example of each in an experiment
designed to determine the effects of an advertising campaign: independent, dependent,
extraneous, control group, experimental group.
Independent variables are those variables which the researcher has control over and wishes
to manipulate. Some independent variables include level of advertising expenditure, type of
advertising appeal (humor, prestige), display location, method of compensating salespeople,
price, and type of product. Dependent variables, on the other hand, are those variables that
Let’s suppose there are two competing themes for the advertising campaign: A and B.
Further, let’s assume that we can do a split viewing of the test themes, A, B, and none
(Control), each in a comparable small city (Experimental City A, Experimental City B, and
Control City C). The ad campaigns, A and B, are the independent variables, while the sales of
the brand in each city is the dependent variable. The after-before sales differences are the
9. Explain the two types of validity in experimentation and also explain why different types of
experiments are better suited for addressing one type of validity versus another.
Two forms of validity are used to assess the validity of an experiment—internal and external.
Internal validity is concerned with the extent to which the change in the dependent variable
Laboratory experiments are those in which the independent variable is manipulated and
measures of the dependent variable are taken in a contrived, artificial setting for the purpose
of controlling the many possible extraneous variables that may affect the dependent variable.
10. Distinguish among the various types of test marketing.
Test marketing is the phrase commonly used to indicate an experiment, study, or test that is
conducted in a field setting. Test markets have been classified into four types: standard,
controlled, electronic, and simulated.
The standard test market is one in which the firm tests the product and/or marketing
Controlled test markets are conducted by outside research firms that guarantee
Electronic test markets are those in which a panel of consumers has agreed to carry
Simulated test markets (STMs) are those in which a limited amount of data on
11. How does qualitative research differ from quantitative research?
Quantitative research is defined as research involving the use of structured questions or
observations where the response options have been predetermined and a large number of
presentation of the data that has been gathered follows an orderly procedure, which is largely
numerical in nature. Qualitative research, in contrast, involves collecting, analyzing, and
12. What is meant by pluralistic research?
13. What are the different methods of observation?
The methods described in the chapter are:
Focus Groups
14. Why are focus groups called “focus” groups?
Although focus groups should encourage openness on the part of the participants, the
15. What is the difference between traditional and nontraditional focus groups?
Traditional focus groups select about 6 to 12 people and meet in a dedicated room, with a
one-way mirror for client viewing, for about two hours. Nontraditional focus groups can
differ from traditional focus groups in many ways: they may be online, with clients observing
16. What is the role of a focus group moderator and what is meant by QRC?
Focus group participants are interviewed by moderators, often referred to as Qualitative
Research Consultants (QRs or QRCs). QRCs have the responsibility of creating an
17. When should focus groups be used? When should focus groups not be used?
Use a focus group when the research objective is to describe, rather than predict. Do not use
18. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of in-depth interviewing.
The advantages are that interviewers have the ability to probe, asking many additional
questions, as a result of a respondent’s response. This enables the research technique to
generate rich, deep, in-depth, responses. In-depth responses may be more revealing in some
19. Explain how “laddering” works.
Laddering is a technique used in in-depth interviews in an attempt to discover how product
attributes are associated with desired consumer values. Essentially, values that are important
to consumers such as “good health” are determined. Next, researchers determine which
20. What is meant by “protocol analysis”?
Protocol analysis involves placing people in a decision-making situation and having them
verbalize everything they consider when making a decision. It is a special-purpose qualitative
21. Explain the rationale behind using projective techniques.
Projective techniques involve situations in which participants are placed in (projected into)
simulated activities in the hopes that they will divulge things about themselves that they
22. Why do you think ethnographic research could be ethically sensitive?
Although students may have different opinions, the chapter states, “Ethnographic research is
an area of ethical sensitivity. Researchers’ immersing themselves in others’ homes, schools,