Book Title
Basic Marketing Research: Using Microsoft Excel Data Analysis 3rd Edition

978-0135078228 Chapter 3 Solution Manual

June 7, 2019
1. What are the steps in the marketing research process?
The steps are: (1) establishing the need for marketing research, (2) defining the
problem, (3) establishing research objectives, (4) determining research design, (5)
identifying information types and sources, (6) determining methods of accessing data,
2. Use an example to illustrate that the steps in the marketing research process are not
always taken in sequence.
3. Explain why firms may not have a need for marketing research.
Marketing research is not needed when: (1) information is already available, (2) the
4. Why is defining the problem the most important step in the marketing research
If the problem is not defined correctly, all of the following steps in the marketing
5. Explain why research objectives differ from the definition of the problem.
Research objectives, when achieved, provide the information necessary to choose
between the identified decisions alternatives. Research objectives tell the researcher
6. What are the three types of research that constitute research design?
There are three widely recognized research designs: exploratory, descriptive and
causal designs. Exploratory research is a form of casual, informal research that is
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7. Which part of the research process ensures that the sample is representative?
Step 8: Determine the sample plan and size. The plan describes how sample units are
8. Which part of the research process ensures the accuracy of the results?
Certainly we could argue that all the steps in the marketing research process affect
accuracy of the results. However, there is one step that specifically addresses
accuracy—setting the sample size. Assuming that there is a representative sample,
9. What is meant by the “problem”?
10. What is the research objective?
A research objective states specifically what information must be
11. Briefly overview the process presented in the chapter for defining both the problem
and the research objective.
The process is:
Recognize the problem
Define the problem with
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12. What are the two sources of marketing problems?
A problem occurs when a gap exists between what was supposed to happen and what
did happen. This is called a “failure to meet an objective.” This second type of
13. Explain how managers should recognize they have a problem.
Unless managers have a control system they will not likely identify problems arising
from failure to meet objectives. Managers must also be aware of opportunities and
14. What is the role of symptoms in problem recognition?
Symptoms are changes in the level of some key monitor that measures the
15. What is the role of the researcher when management has already defined the
Here is the quote by definition expert Lawrence D. Gibson: “Researchers must resist
16. What is a situation analysis and when would it likely be used when defining the
A situation analysis is a form of exploratory research undertaken to gather
17. How do ITBs and RFPs influence the problem definition process?
In either case, the roles of the researcher and manager in the problem definition
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least management has thought through many of the issues involved with defining the
18. What is the role of the researcher when management has NOT already defined the
19. What is meant by the researcher validating the symptoms?
The researcher should study the control system and/or conduct a
20. What is the difference between (a) all possible causes and (b) probable causes?
Through situation analysis, the researcher determines all possible
causes. If only a partial list of causes is compiled, it is possible that
21. Discuss why “defining the problem” is really stating the decision to be made along
with the decision alternatives.
Students should refer to Figure 3.2, Problem Definition, to see that it
22. What is meant by “consequences” of the decision alternatives?
23.Explain how assumptions play a role in the problem definition process.
Assumptions are assertions that certain conditions exist or that
24. Use Figure 3.2 and explain what happens when the information on hand is adequate.
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With adequate information on hand, there is no need to perform
25. Explain the information state when there are information gaps.
26. What is needed to close information gaps?
Research objectives state specifically what information must be
produced by the researcher so that the manager can choose the
27. What is the role of a hypothesis in defining the problem?
Hypotheses are statements that are taken for true for the purposes
28. What are some factors considered to be important in determining research
The factors are:
From whom are we going to gather information?
What construct do we wish to measure?
29. What role do constructs play in the problem definition/research objectives process?
A construct is an abstract idea inferred from specific instances that
30. What is an operational definition and where would it likely be used?
An operational definition defines a construct, such as intention to
buy or satisfaction that describes the operations to be carried out in
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31. What is an action standard?
An action standard is the predesignation in a research objective of
some quantity of the attribute or characteristic being measured that
32. Discuss impediments to problem definition.
The impediments discussed are: (1) managers sometimes fail to
realize that they must change their behavior for problem-definition
33. What are the components of the marketing research proposal?
The components are:
Problem statement
Here is a detailed description.
Function Description
Defines the marketing management
Details the research method proposed by
the researcher to accomplish the research
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34. Go to the Internet and do a search for marketing research firms. Look through their
Web pages. Can you identify examples of what they are presenting to you as relating
to steps in the research process?
This exercise’s outcome will vary greatly from student to student as it is idiosyncratic
for each company. The task is for students to identify what step, or steps in the
process are in the company’s services. Most students will find data collection
35. Go to your library’s online database or the Internet and look for examples of firms
conducting a marketing research study. There are many examples reported in
periodicals such as Advertising Age, Marketing News, Business Week, and Forbes.
Typically, these articles will mention a few details of the research project itself.
Identify as many of the steps in the marketing research process as possible that are
referred to in the articles you find.
Again, this exercise will vary by student as each example will be unique. Typically,
periodicals such as the ones listed above report the findings and conclusions of
36. Observe any business in your community. Examine what it does, what products or
services it provides, its pricing policy, its promotions, or any other aspect of its
business. Try to determine whether you, as manager of the business, would have
conducted research to determine the firm’s products, their design, features, prices,
promotion, and so on. If you decide that you would not have conducted marketing
research on a given area, explain why.
With this exercise, students typically select a business they patronize meaning that
they have first-hand knowledge of its products or services. They may believe that
they would not need research for this reason. However, when forced to think about
37. Think of what you may imagine as being an opportunity in the marketplace. Explain
how Figure 3.2 would help you in conducting or not conducting marketing research.
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Figure 3.2 identifies the recommended steps to follow, so, the task is for the student to
address each of the following steps:
Define the problem by management (select a category, such as marketing a
new recipe, selling a new food item, or producing a new food ingredient)
Situation analysis (who will buy, why, and how much)
Case 3.1 Golf Technologies Inc.
Case Objective: This short case requires students to take the role of a marketing
researcher and to apply concepts pertaining to the problem definition
phase of the marketing research process.
Answers to Case Questions
1. Assuming Pennick agrees with his staff on the choice of Woods or Mickelson, what
now is Pennick’s decision in terms of decision alternatives?
Decision alternatives are:
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2. Assuming that Pennick is not confident in his assumptions about the consequences of
the outcomes associated with your decision alternative, what should Pennick
consider doing?
It is at this point that Pennick should consider conducting a marketing research
project. When the decision is important and when the manager is uncertain as to the
3. Should Pennick decide to conduct marketing research, write the research objective.
Remember that research objectives should: (1) specify from whom information be
gathered; (2) specify what information (construct) is needed; (3) specify the unit of
From whom—should be those who play golf. Students may also differentiate
What—the construct that is of most importance is the credibility of the spokesperson.
Unit of measurement—what is important here is that the students actually specify
Frame of reference—students should raise the issue of what does credibility mean to
the average person? They may explore with measuring terms that have greater clarity
Case 3.2 Integrated Case: Advanced Automobile Concepts
Case Objective: This case will help students to understand how to define the problem
and develop a list of research objectives.
Answers to Case Questions
1. How would you describe the “source” of the problem(s) facing Nick Thomas?
This is clearly an opportunity situation. That is, although the Zen Motors brands have
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been losing market share, the case relates that the Advanced Automobile Concepts
According to the chapter, an opportunity represents a “favorable circumstance, or
chance for progress or advancement.” The circumstances facing Nick Adams are:
2. Focus just on one area identified in The Douglass Report: demand for the different
basic models. How would you write this problem?
The problem can be posed as the following question.
3. Given what you wrote in question 2, write the research objective.
The research objectives for “How many of the various hybrid vehicles under
consideration for development will be purchased?” are the following:
1. What are (prospective) automobile buyers attitudes toward the following:
2. What are consumer preferences and intentions for various types and combinations
of fuel-efficient automobiles?
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall