ii. After this silent period, each member presents one idea to the group.
iii. The group now discusses the ideas for clarity and evaluates them.
4. Each of the group-decision techniques has its own set of strengths and weaknesses.
a. The choice depends on what criteria you want to emphasize and the cost–benefit
b. As Exhibit 9-5 indicates, an interacting group is good for achieving commitment
to a solution, brainstorming develops group cohesiveness, and the nominal group
technique is an inexpensive means for generating a large number of ideas.
II. Summary and Implications for Managers
A. We can draw several implications from our discussion of groups.
B. First, norms control behavior by establishing standards of right and wrong. The norms of
a given group can help explain members’ behaviors for managers.
C. Second, status inequities create frustration and can adversely influence productivity and
willingness to remain with an organization.
D. Third, the impact of size on a group’s performance depends on the type of task. Larger
groups are associated with lower satisfaction.
E. Fourth, cohesiveness may influence a group’s level of productivity, depending on the
group’s performance-related norms.
F. Fifth, diversity appears to have a mixed impact on group performance, with some studies
suggesting that diversity can help performance and others suggesting it can hurt it.
G. Sixth, role conflict is associated with job-induced tension and job dissatisfaction.
Specific implications for managers are below:
a. Recognize that groups can dramatically affect individual behavior in
organizations, to either positive or negative effect. Therefore, pay special
attention to roles, norms, and cohesion—to understand how these are
operating within a group is to understand how the group is likely to behave.
norms do not support antisocial behavior.
c. Pay attention to the status aspect of groups. Because lower-status people tend
to participate less in group discussions, groups with high status differences are
likely to inhibit input from lower-status members and reduce their potential.
d. Use larger groups for fact-finding activities and smaller groups for
e. To increase employee satisfaction, make certain people perceive their job roles
Myth or Science?
Gossip and Exclusion Are Toxic For Groups