Type
Solution Manual
Book Title
Organizational Behavior 18th Edition
ISBN 13
978-0134729329

978-0134729329 Chapter 6 Solution Manual

January 2, 2020
Chapter 6 Perception and Individual Decision Making Page
Questions for Review
6-1. What are the factors that influence our perception?
AACSB: Reflective thinking
6-2. What is attribution theory?
Learning Objective: Describe attribution theory
AACSB: Reflective thinking
6-3. What is the link between perception and decision making?
Answer: Individuals must make decisions at work. Decision making occurs as a
making.
Learning Objective: Explain the link between perception and decision making
AACSB: Reflective thinking
6-4. How is the rational model of decision making different from bounded rationality
and intuition?
Step 1: Define the problem.
Step 2: Identify the decision criteria.
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Chapter 6 Perception and Individual Decision Making Page
Step 3: Allocate weights to the criteria.
Step 4: Develop the alternatives.
Step 5: Evaluate the alternatives.
Step 6: Select the best alternative.
charged.
Learning Objective: Contrast the rational model of decision making with bounded rationality and
intuition
AACSB: Reflective thinking
6-5. How do individual differences and organizational constraints influence decision
making?
possible decisions. Organizational constraints can include:
a. Performance Evaluation—managerial evaluation criteria influence actions.
payoff for them.
c. Formal Regulations—limit the alternative choices of decision makers.
d. System-Imposed Time Constraints—restrict ability to gather or evaluate
information.
religion, etc.
Learning Objective: Explain how individual differences and organizational constraints affect
decision making
values
AACSB: Reflective thinking
6-6. What are the three ethical decision criteria, and how do they differ?
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Chapter 6 Perception and Individual Decision Making Page
create a legalistic environment that hinders productivity and efficiency. A focus on
justice protects the interests of the underrepresented and less powerful, but it can
productivity.
Learning Objective: Contrast the three ethical decision criteria
Learning Outcome: Apply the study of perception and attribution to the workplace
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning; Reflective thinking
6-7. What are the parts of the three-stage model of creativity?
AACSB: Reflective thinking
Experiential Exercise
Mafia
This exercise contributes to:
Learning Objectives: Explain the factors that influence perception; Contrast the rational model of decision
making with bounded rationality and intuition
the townsfolk. The narrator should write “mafia” on 2 slips of paper and “townsfolk” on
3 slips of paper (or otherwise covertly communicate to each member their identities).
The narrator will pass these out covertly to all group members, randomly assigning them
to either the “mafia” or “townsfolk” groups (and instruct everyone to keep their identities
private).
the imprisoned player reveals his/her identity and is removed from gameplay.
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Chapter 6 Perception and Individual Decision Making Page
close their eyes.
On the following day phase, the narrator requests that all townsfolk open their eyes and
lift their heads. At this point, the narrator announces who the mafia chose to eliminate.
This person reveals their identity and is then removed from gameplay. The day phase
then commences with the players (again) trying to figure out who the (remaining) mafia
How could you tell?
6-10. Do you think it is possible to be a good liar? What factors would a good liar have
to control to pass off a lie as truth?
Teaching Notes
This exercise is applicable to face-to-face classes or synchronous online classes such as
BlackBoard 9.1, Breeze, WIMBA, and Second Life Virtual Classrooms. See
(http://docplayer.net/19442732-Effective-use-of-collaboration-tools-for-online-learning-jennifer-pontano-k
e-anna-skipwith-drexel-university-e-learning-2-0-conference-march-2011.html) for more information.
Ethical Dilemma
Cheating is a Decision
This exercise contributes to:
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning; Reflective thinking
We all have cheated at something. We may think that deciding to cheat is a product of
cold calculation: Is the benefit worth the cost? In some cases, this appears to be true—a
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Chapter 6 Perception and Individual Decision Making Page
Here are some realities of cheating:
1. Cheating isn’t a cash deal. People would rather take things than cash.
ourselves.
3. Moods affect cheating. People cheat more when they are angry or tired.
people will likely cheat more.
5. People like to cheat in secret. When people can be out of sight, they tend to cheat
more.
Sources: E. B. Beasley, “Students Reported for Cheating Explain What They Think Would Have Stopped Them,” Ethics and Behavior
24, no. 3 (2014): 229–52; J. Chen, T. L.-P. Tang, and N. Tang, “Temptation, Monetary Intelligence (Love of Money), and
UNSP 318; D. Rigby, M. Burton, K. Balcombe, I. Bateman, and A. Mulatu, “Contract Cheating and the Market in Essays,” Journal of
Economic Behavior and Organization 111 (2015): 23–37; and M. H. Bazerman and A. E. Tenbrunsel, Blind Spots: Why We Fail to Do
Questions
6-11. Do you know classmates who have cheated in school? Have you ever cheated?
homework?
6-12. The authors of one study noted that people feel they don’t need to be objective in
an ethical breach to be equal to admission of guilt in a legal case. Most students,
which fans forgive them.
6-13. Do you think if we admitted it to ourselves when we cheated, we would be less
likely to cheat in the future? Why or why not?
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Chapter 6 Perception and Individual Decision Making Page
Teaching Notes
This exercise is applicable to face-to-face classes or synchronous online classes such as
BlackBoard 9.1, Breeze, WIMBA, and Second Life Virtual Classrooms. See
(http://www.wimba.com/solutions/higher-education/wimba_classroom_for_higher_education),
(http://go.secondlife.com/landing/education/) and
(http://docplayer.net/19442732-Effective-use-of-collaboration-tools-for-online-learning-jennifer-pontano-k
e-anna-skipwith-drexel-university-e-learning-2-0-conference-march-2011.html) for more information.
Case Incident 1
Warning: Collaboration Overload
This exercise contributes to:
constraints affect decision making
Learning Outcome: Apply the study of perceptions and attribution to the workplace
AACSB: Reflective thinking
“Regardless of what you’re giving us, we’re dying by e-mail,” an executive told Jamie
McLellan, a CTO at an advertising agency. McLellan invested in many different
sending and receiving between 3,000 to 5,000 e-mails per month.
This influx of various collaboration mechanisms has led to a real problem for
organizations: collaboration overload. According to data spanning two decades,
employees spend about 50 percent or more of their time collaborating with others.
working on one’s work) translates to depleted personal resources.
Collaboration overload can have drastic effects on decision making within organizations.
By increasing the number of collaboration mechanisms and therefore increasing
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Chapter 6 Perception and Individual Decision Making Page
become at least partially unplugged.
Spent collaborating with others (rather than working on one’s work) translates to depleted personal
resources. Collaboration overload can have drastic eects on decision making within organizations. By
increasing the number of collaboration mechanisms and therefore increasing communication complexity,
the number of new nodes in decision making increases exponentially, requiring more meetings, e-mails,
at least partially unplugged.
Questions
6-14. In what ways do you think collaboration overload can have an impact on
decision making?
Management. Student responses will vary.
6-15. What biases do you think play into managers continued use of collaboration tools
and modes?
Management. Student responses will vary.
6-16. How does collaboration overload (e.g., requiring employees to use multiple
collaboration mechanisms or become employed in open-office environments)
compare to the three ethical decision criteria (i.e., utilitarianism, liberties/rights, and
deonance) discussed in this chapter?
Teaching Notes
This exercise is applicable to face-to-face classes or synchronous online classes such as
BlackBoard 9.1, Breeze, WIMBA, and Second Life Virtual Classrooms. See
(http://www.wimba.com/solutions/higher-education/wimba_classroom_for_higher_education),
(http://go.secondlife.com/landing/education/) and
(http://docplayer.net/19442732-Effective-use-of-collaboration-tools-for-online-learning-jennifer-pontano-k
e-anna-skipwith-drexel-university-e-learning-2-0-conference-march-2011.html) for more information.
Case Incident 2
Feeling Bored Again
This exercise contributes to:
constraints affect decision making
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Chapter 6 Perception and Individual Decision Making Page
Learning Outcome: Apply the study of perceptions and attribution to the workplace
AACSB: Reflective thinking
is not in itself bad, but the unethical behavior that follows may be problematic.
Recent research suggests that when one’s work is routine, more automatic, intuitive
cognitive processes are activated, leading to an increase in rule-breaking behavior. On the
other hand, multitasking may lead to less unethical decision making, a rare bright side for
were allocated to them.
Another study suggests that boredom can lead to making unethical decisions in the
workplace as well. This study found that those who experience boredom in their jobs and
who tend to be bored more because they perceive less stimulation from the external
intuitive processes) can be to change the task or environment structure so that there is
more variety and so that the work itself is less boring.
Sources: K. Bruursema, S. R. Kessler, and P. E. Spector, “Bored Employees Misbehaving: The Relationship between Boredom and
Counterproductive Work Behavior,” Work & Stress 25, no. 2 (2011): 93–107; R. Derfler-Rozin, C. Moore, and B. Staats,
Questions
6-17. How do you think boredom affects your decision making, beyond promoting
unethical decisions?
Management. Student responses will vary.
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Chapter 6 Perception and Individual Decision Making Page
6-18. Do you think boredom can help you be more creative? Why or why not?
MyLab Management. Student responses will vary.
6-19. Does it surprise you that boredom was not related to horseplay? Why or why not?
Teaching Notes
(http://go.secondlife.com/landing/education/) and
(http://docplayer.net/19442732-Effective-use-of-collaboration-tools-for-online-learning-jennifer-pontano-k
e-anna-skipwith-drexel-university-e-learning-2-0-conference-march-2011.html) for more information.
MyLab Management
as the following Assisted-graded writing questions:
6-21. Consider Case Incident 2. Do you think that the results for the effects of
not?
6-22. MyLab Management only—additional assisted-graded writing assignment.
Instructors Choice
Applying the Concepts
This exercise contributes to:
Learning Objectives: Explain the factors that influence perception; Contrast the rational model of decision
making with bounded rationality and intuition; Explain how individual differences and organizational
constraints affect decision making
Learning Outcome: Apply the study of perceptions and attribution to the workplace
AACSB: Reflective thinking
Bill Ford never doubted that he could run his family’s company, Ford Motor Company.
He just had to convince others that he could. It is not every day that an owner decides to
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Chapter 6 Perception and Individual Decision Making Page
throw him or herself into the management pool and learn to swim with different strokes.
When Ford took over in 1999, many were skeptical and predicted a continued slide for
executives that are decisive, can get along with one another, and are willing to take risks
as a group. His team was assembled from all over the world. Different points of view
were essential to the decision making success of the group. Ford believes in group
decision making as opposed to the lone gun approach. The new bottom line is profits and
vote.
Using a search engine of your own choosing, find an article about Bill Ford and the
job he is doing at Ford Motor Company. What evidence of team-oriented decision
making did you find in your article? Be sure to summarize any approach identified.
Using a search engine of your own choosing, find an article about Ford’s new hybrid
Instructor Discussion
The transformation of Ford Motor Company under the leadership of Bill Ford is nothing
short of amazing. Mr. Ford was probably given more room and time to make changes
because of his unique position in the company at the onset; however, Wall Street watched
Teaching Notes
This exercise is applicable to face-to-face classes or synchronous online classes such as
BlackBoard 9.1, Breeze, WIMBA, and Second Life Virtual Classrooms. See
(http://www.wimba.com/solutions/higher-education/wimba_classroom_for_higher_education),
(http://go.secondlife.com/landing/education/) and
(http://docplayer.net/19442732-Effective-use-of-collaboration-tools-for-online-learning-jennifer-pontano-k
e-anna-skipwith-drexel-university-e-learning-2-0-conference-march-2011.html) for more information.
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Chapter 6 Perception and Individual Decision Making Page
Exploring OB Topics on the Web
This exercise contributes to:
making with bounded rationality and intuition
Learning Outcome: Apply the study of perceptions and attribution to the workplace
AACSB: Reflective thinking
1. Read more about ethics in the workplace. A comprehensive guide on many topics
confronting managers can be found at:
them to class for further discussion.
2. Learn more about Attribution Theory at West Virginias website by searching for
3. Explore the topic of decision making and intuition. Go to Forbes’ website and
http://www.forbes.com/sites/cherylsnappconner/2013/08/05/should-intuition-be-runni
ng-your-business-yes-and-no/ and
http://www.forbes.com/sites/timworstall/2011/12/26/why-rules-of-thumb-intuition-gu
t-feelings-work-in-business-decisions/.
4. Conduct an Internet search on one of the topics from this chapter combined with
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