Solution Manual
Book Title
Principles of Marketing 17th Edition

978-0134492513 Chapter 15 Lecture Notes Part 2

June 3, 2019
Assignments, Resources
Use Discussion Questions 15-1, 15-2, and 15-3 here
Use Critical Thinking Exercise 15-6 and 15-7here
Use Marketing Ethics here
Use Real Marketing 15.1 here
Use Additional Projects 1 and 2 here
Use Small Group Assignment 1 here
Use Individual Assignment 1 here
Use Outside Examples 1 and 2 here
Use Video Case here
Troubleshooting Tip
Message execution is also a key concept. Many
students will have trouble with the various
execution styles and will particularly have difficulty
with slice of life versus lifestyle. There may also be
difficulty in understanding the difference between
fantasy and mood or image. Again, use examples of
your own, as well as those shown in the text.
p. 438
p. 440
Consumer-Generated Content. Taking advantage of
today’s interactive technologies, many companies are now
tapping consumers for message ideas or actual ads.
If done well, consumer-generated advertising efforts can
produce big benefits.
For little expense, companies can collect new
creative ideas.
These campaigns can boost consumer involvement
and get consumers talking and thinking about a
brand and its value to them.
Selecting Advertising Media
The major steps in advertising media selection are: (1)
defining reach, frequency, impact and engagement; (2)
choosing among major media types; (3) selecting specific
media vehicles; and (4) choosing media timing.
Defining Reach, Frequency, Impact, and Engagement.
Reach is a measure of the percentage of people in the
target market who are exposed to the ad campaign during a
given period of time. Frequency is a measure of how many
times the average person in the target market is exposed to
the message.
The advertiser must determine the desired media impact
p. 438
Photo: GoPro
p. 438
Ad: Converse
p. 440
Key Term:
Advertising media
Copyright©2018 Pearson Education
p. 441
p. 442
p. 443
p. 443
the qualitative value of a message exposure through a
given medium.
Typically, the advertiser wants to choose media that will
engage consumers rather than simply reach them.
Measures of engagement are difficult to find, though
consumer expressions, such as a “Like” can be counted.
Choosing Among Major Media Types. The media
planner has to know the reach, frequency, and impact of
each major media type. As summarized in Table 15.2, the
major media types are newspapers, television, direct mail,
radio, magazines, outdoor, and the Internet. Each medium
has advantages and limitations.
Media planners must also decide between narrowcasting
and the shotgun approach.
More and more, advertisers are turning to alternative
media in an effort to get their message through.
Selecting Specific Media Vehicles. The media planner
now must choose the best media vehicles—specific media
within each general media type.
Media planners must compute the cost per 1,000 persons
reached by a vehicle.
The media planner must also consider the costs of
producing ads for different media.
The media planner must balance media costs against
several media effectiveness factors:
Audience quality
Audience engagement
Editorial quality
Deciding on Media Timing. The advertiser must decide
how to schedule the advertising over the course of a year.
Some marketers do only seasonal advertising. Most do
some seasonal advertising.
The advertiser has to choose the pattern of the ads.
p. 441
Ad: Mazda
p. 442
Table 15.2: Profiles
of Major Media
p. 442
Photo: Caribou
p. 443
Ad: Peep’s
Copyright©2018 Pearson Education
15-24 Online and social media let advertisers create ads that
respond to events in real time.
Assignments, Resources
Use Real Marketing 15.2 here
Use Think-Pair-Share 1, 2, and 3 here
p. 444
Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness and Return on
Advertising Investment
Measuring advertising effectiveness and the return on
advertising effectiveness has become a hot issue for most
Measuring the communication effects of an ad or ad
campaign tells whether the ads and media are communi-
cating the ad message well.
Sales and profit effects of advertising and other content are
often harder to measure. Sales and profits are affected by
many factors besides advertising—such as product
features, price, and availability.
One way to measure the sales and profit effects of
advertising is to compare past sales and profits with past
advertising expenditures.
p. 444
Key Term: Return
on advertising
Assignments, Resources
Use Online, Mobile and Social Media Marketing
Use Marketing by the Numbers here
Use Company Case here
p. 444
p. 445
Other Advertising Considerations
Organizing for Advertising
Different companies organize in different ways to handle
In small companies, advertising might be handled by
someone in the sales department.
Large companies set up advertising departments whose job
it is to set the advertising budget, work with the advertising
p. 445
Key Term:
Advertising agency
Copyright©2018 Pearson Education
p. 446
agency, and handle advertising not done by the agency.
Advertising agencies employ specialists who can often
perform advertising tasks better than the company’s own
Most large advertising agencies have the staff and
resources to handle all phases of an advertising campaign
for its clients, from creating a marketing plan to developing
ad campaigns and preparing, placing, and evaluating ads.
International Advertising Decisions
International advertisers face many complexities not
encountered by domestic advertisers.
The most basic issue concerns the degree to which global
advertising should be adapted to the unique characteristics
of markets in various countries.
Standardization produces many benefits—lower
advertising costs, greater global advertising coordination,
and a more consistent worldwide image.
There are also drawbacks—standardization ignores the fact
that country markets differ greatly in their cultures,
demographics, and economic conditions.
Global advertisers face several special problems:
Advertising media costs and availability differ
vastly from country to country.
Countries also differ in the extent to which they
regulate advertising practices.
Although advertisers may develop global strategies
to guide their overall advertising efforts, specific
advertising programs must usually be adapted to
meet local cultures and customers, media character-
istics, and advertising regulations.
Review Learning Objective 2: Describe the major
decisions involved in developing an advertising program.
p. 445
Ad: McDonald’s
Assignments, Resources
Use Discussion Question 15-4 here
Use Additional Project 3 here
Use Small Group Assignment 2 here
Copyright©2018 Pearson Education
p. 446
p. 446
Define the role of public relations in the promotion mix.
Public relations is designed to build good relations with
the company’s various publics by obtaining favorable
publicity, building a positive corporate image, and
managing unfavorable rumors, stories, and events.
Public relations departments may perform any or all of the
following functions:
Press relations or press agency: Creating and
placing newsworthy information in the news media
to attract attention to a person, product, or service.
Product publicity: Publicizing specific products.
Public affairs: Building and maintaining national or
local community relations.
Lobbying: Building and maintaining relations with
legislators and government officials to influence
legislation and regulation.
Investor relations: Maintaining relationships with
shareholders and others in the financial community.
Development: Working with donors or members of
nonprofit organizations to gain financial or
volunteer support.
Public relations is used to promote products, people,
places, ideas, activities, organizations, and even nations.
Learning Objective
p. 446
Key Term: Public
relations (PR)
Assignments, Resources
Use Discussion Question 15-5 here
Use Additional Project 4 here
Use Think-Pair-Share 4 here
p. 447
The Role and Impact of PR
Public relations can make a strong impact on public aware-
ness at a much lower cost than advertising can.
The company does not pay for the space or time in the
If the company develops an interesting story or event, it
could be picked up by several different media, having the
same effect as advertising that would cost millions of
dollars. And, it would have more credibility than
p. 447
Photo: Burger King
Copyright©2018 Pearson Education
p. 448
Public relations is sometimes described as a marketing
stepchild because of its often limited and scattered use.
Advertising and public relations should work hand in hand
within an IMC program to build brands and customer
Review Learning Objective 3: Define the role of public
relations in the promotion mix.
Explain how companies use PR to communicate with
their publics.
Major Public Relations Tools
Public relations professionals use several tools.
PR professionals find or create favorable news
about the company and its products or people.
Another common PR tool is special events,
including news conferences, press tours, or
educational programs designed to reach and interest
target publics.
Public relations people also prepare written
materials to reach and influence their target
markets. These materials include annual reports,
brochures, articles, and company newsletters and
Audiovisual materials, such as slide-and-sound
programs, DVDs, and online videos are being used
increasingly as communication tools.
Corporate identity materials can also help create a
corporate identity that the public immediately
Companies can improve public goodwill by
contributing money and time to public service
The Web is also an increasingly important PR channel.
Websites, blogs, and social networks such as YouTube,
Facebook, and Twitter are providing interesting new ways
to reach more people.
A company’s Website can be a good public relations
vehicle and is ideal for handling crisis situations.
Learning Objective
Copyright©2018 Pearson Education
Review Learning Objective 4: Explain how companies
use PR to communicate with their publics.
Assignments, Resources
Use Critical Thinking Exercise 15-8 here
Use Real Marketing 15.2 here
Use Additional Project 5 here
Use Individual Assignment 2 here
Use Think-Pair-Share 5 and 6 here
Troubleshooting Tip
Public relations is a mystery to almost everyone.
There will be some questions regarding the product
publicity done by public relations versus that done
by a marketing manager, but these questions can be
answered by the notion of free, because the vast
majority of what PR does is to get the company in
the press. One of the examples of masterful public
relations that the book points out is CVS and its
decision to stop selling cigarettes and tobacco
products in its stores. This example alone is often
enough to explain the importance of this
communication channel.
Copyright©2018 Pearson Education

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