e) Most leadership theories were developed in the United States using U.S.
1) They emphasize follower responsibilities rather than rights; assume
self-gratification rather than commitment to duty or altruistic motivation;
assume centrality of work and democratic value orientation; and stress
rationality rather than spirituality, religion, or superstition.
f) As a guide for adjusting your leadership style, you might consider the value
dimensions of national culture presented in Chapter 2.
g) The GLOBE study found that there are some universal aspects to leadership.
1) A number of elements of transformational leadership appear to be associated
with effective leadership regardless of what country the leader is in.
2) These elements include vision, foresight, providing encouragement,
trustworthiness, dynamism, positiveness, and proactiveness.
h) Participation is likely to be most effective in low power distance cultures
(Norway, Finland, Denmark, and Sweden).
Technology and the Manager’s Job – Virtual Leadership
Most research on leadership has been done with face-to-face interaction, not virtual. Non-verbal
communication cannot be viewed, but managers still have choices regarding their words and
structure in digital communication. Managers need to 'read between the lines' when
communicating in a virtual environment. Writing skills will likely become an extension of
What challenges does a “virtual” leader face?
How can virtual leaders use technology to help them be more effective leaders?
Almost every company is going virtual, even colleges and universities! While students may not
have had a lot of experience working for companies virtually, the majority of students today have
taken at least one class via the Internet. If it helps class discussion, have students answer the
questions above in relation to online education. Do they feel that the quality of the interaction is
higher in traditional face-to-face courses or in online courses? The answer may surprise you.
How Does Emotional Intelligence Affect Leadership?
1. Recent studies indicating that EI—more than I.Q., expertise, or any other single
factor—is the best predictor of who will emerge as a leader.
a) I.Q. and technical skills are “threshold capabilities.”