Type
Solution Manual
Book Title
Advertising & IMC: Principles and Practice 10th Edition
ISBN 13
978-0133506884

978-0133506884 Chapter 10 Lecture Note Part 1

April 23, 2019
Chapter 10
VISUAL COMMUNICATION
CHAPTER CONTENT
CHAPTER KEY POINTS
1. What is the role of visual communication in brand communication messages?
2. What is the difference between layout and composition, and why are those concepts
important?
3. How are art and color reproduced in print advertising?
4. What are the steps in planning and producing video?
5. What are the basic techniques of Web design?
CHAPTER OVERVIEW
This chapter is about the visuals used in advertising—how they are designed and what
they contribute to the meaning of the ad. First we review some basic ideas about visual
impact, both in print and broadcast, and the role of the art director. Then we consider
print art production, video production, and end with a discussion of the design of Internet
advertising.
CHAPTER OUTLINE
WHY IS VISUAL COMMUNICATION IMPORTANT?
In effective advertising, both print and television, it’s not just the words that need
to communicate the message – the visuals need to communicate, too. Visuals do
some things better than words, such as demonstrate something.
The effective use of visuals in advertising can be related to a number of the effects
we have outlined in our Facets Model of Effects.
1. Grab attention. Generally visuals are better at getting and keeping attention
than words.
2. Stick in memory. Visuals persist in the mind because people generally
remember messages as visual fragments, that is, as key images that are filed
easily in their minds.
3. Cement belief. Seeing is believing. Visuals that demonstrate add credibility to
a message.
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4. Tell interesting stories. Visual storytelling is engaging and maintains interest.
5. Communicate quickly. Pictures tell stories faster than words.
6. Anchor associations. To distinguish undifferentiated products with low
inherent interest, advertisers often link the product with visual associations
representing lifestyles and types of users.
In general, print designers have found that a picture in a print ad captures more
than twice as many readers as a headline does. Furthermore, the bigger the
illustration, the more the message grabs consumers’ attention. Layouts with
pictures also tend to pull more readers into the body copy. Initial attention is more
likely to turn to interest with a strong visual.
Principle:The visual’s primary function in an advertisement is to get attention.
People not only notice visuals, buy they also remember ads with pictures more
than those composed mostly of type. Both the believability factor and the
interest-building impact of a visual story are reasons why visuals are anchored so
well in memory. Attention, interest, memorability, believability – these factors
help explain the visual impact of advertising messages.
The A Principled Practice feature in this chapter explains the issues surrounding
the use of provocative or shocking images in advertising and other marketing
communication.
Brand Image and Position
Marketing communication plays an important role in the creation of brand
images. Much of that contribution comes from the visual elements—the symbolic
images associated with the brand and the elements that define the brand, such as
the trademark and logo.
A logo, which is the imprint used for immediate identification of a brand or
company, is an interesting design project because it utilizes typography,
illustration, and layout to create a distinctive and memorable image that identifies
the brand.
Brand icons are characters associated with a brand, such as Mr. Peanut, Uncle
Ben, and Ronald McDonald. If they are effective, they become an enduring
symbol of the brand. Over time, however, they may need to be updated as the
Betty Crocker image has been a number of times.
Package design is another area where brand image is front and center. The
package design accommodates strategic elements with positioning statements,
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flags that reference current campaigns, recipes, and pricing announcements, as
well as economic and popular cultural events.
A brand position is often thought to be tied to words. However, Laura Ries argues
that one of the best ways to nail down a position is with a visual. In her iBook, she
explains that visuals are powerful “because they hold emotional power that
sticks.”
Visual Storytelling
In visual storytelling, the image sets up a narrative that has to be constructed by
the reader or viewer. Visual storytelling is important even for abstract concepts,
such as “empowered,” “inspired,” or “inventive.”
Art directors in particular design images that tell stories and create brand
impressions. The art – the image or visual elements – in a marketing
communication message can touch emotional buttons. Our ethics discussions in
this book often focus on the appropriateness of an image and the story it tells
about the brand.
Emotion and Visual Persuasion
We’ve talked about the visual impact and the power of visual storytelling. Both
come together in persuasive messages that are designed to touch the emotions and
‘move’ the consumer to respond favorably to the brand. Research suggests that
not only are images moving, but they are also becoming increasingly dramatic
and controversial.
In many situations, emotion is the key driver of a prospect being ‘tuned in’ to a
message. In the A Matter of Principlefeature, a professor explores why
emotionally loaded visuals are particularly useful in certain types of
environmental messages.
Emotion is a ‘hook’ that helps engage the attention of a viewer and contributes to
the depth of the memory traces left behind by the brand message. The stronger
the feelings elicited by a message, the more likely the viewer will find meaning in
a message and link that meaningful experience to a brand. A visual can be the
cue that turns on this brand linkage process.
WHAT IS ART DIRECTION?
The person most responsible for creating visual impact, as well as brand
identification elements, is the art director. The art director is in charge of the
visual look of the advertisement, both in print and TV, and how it communicates
mood, product qualities, and psychological appeals. The art director and
copywriter team usually work together to come up with the Big Idea, but the art
director is responsible for bringing the visual side of the idea to life.
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Specifically, art directors make decisions about whether to use art or photography
in print and film or animation in television and what type of artistic style to use.
They are trained in graphic design, including art, photography, typography, the
use of color, and computer design software.
Although art directors generally design the ad, they rarely create the finished art.
If they need an illustration, they hire an artist. Newspaper and Web advertising
visuals are often clip artorclick art, images from collections of copyright-free art
that anyone who buys the clip-art service can use.
In addition to advertising, art directors may also be involved in designing a brand
or corporate logo, as well as merchandising materials, store or corporate office
interiors, and other aspects of a brand’s visual presentation, such as shopping
bags, delivery trucks, and uniforms. A graphic designer explains in this chapters
Inside Story feature how she views the working environment of graphic designers.
The Designer’s Toolkit
One of the most difficult problems that art directors and those who work on the
creative side of advertising face is to transform a concept into words and pictures.
During the brainstorming process, both copywriters and art directors are engaged
in visualization, which means they are imagining what the finished ad might look
like.
The art director, however, is responsible for translating the Big Idea into a visual
story. To do this, the art director relies upon a toolkit that consists of illustrations
or animation, photos or film shots, color, type, design principles, layout (print),
and composition (photography, video, or film) among other visual elements.
Illustrations and Photos
When art directors use the word “art,” they usually mean photographs and
illustrations, each of which serves different purposes in ads. Photography has an
authenticity and credibility that make it powerful, since most people believe that
pictures don’t lie (even though they can be altered.)
The decision to use a photograph or an illustration is usually determined by the
advertising strategy and its need for either realism or fanciful images. Generally, a
photograph is more realistic and an illustration is more fanciful. Illustrations, by
definition, eliminate many of the details in a photograph, which can make it easier
to understand since what remains are the “highlights” of the image. This ease of
perception can simplify the visual message because it can also focus attention on
key details of the image. Illustrations also use artistic techniques to intensify
meanings and moods, making illustrations ideal for fantasy.
It is also possible to manipulate a photograph and turn it into art, a technique that
brought recognition to Andy Warhol, among others. These practices have become
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popular with the advent of the Internet and the availability of easy-to-find digital
images, some of which are copyrighted.
Another issue involving digitized images in a global environment revolves around
the ability of software programs, such as Photoshop, to manipulate specific
content within a photo.
Color
In addition to photos and illustrations, another important visual element that art
directors manipulate is color. Color attracts attention, provides realism, establishes
moods, and builds brand identity. Art directors know that print ads with color,
particularly those in newspapers, get more attention than ads without color. Most
ads – print, broadcast, and Internet – are in full color, especially when art directors
use photographs.
Color is particularly important in branding. In print, some designers use spot
color in which a second color in addition to black is used to highlight important
elements. The use of spot color is highly attention-getting, particularly in
newspaper ads.
Color can help convey a mood. However, color associations are culturally
determined and therefore can vary in other cultures.
Black and white is also an important choice in image design because it lends
dignity and sophistication to the visual. When realism is important to convey in
an ad, full-color photographs may be essential.
Typography
Not only do art directors carefully choose colors, but they also specify the ad’s
typography, which is the appearance of the ad’s printed matter. In most cases,
good typesetting does not call attention to itself because its primary role is
functional. Type or lettering has an aesthetic role, and the type selection can, in a
subtle or not so subtle way, contribute to the impact and mood of the message.
Principle: Type has a functional role in the way it presents the letters in words so
they can be easily read, but it also has an aesthetic role and can contribute to the
meaning of the message through its design.
Ad designers choose from among thousands of typefaces to find the right one for
the ad’s message. Designers are familiar with type classifications, but it is also
important for managers and other people on the creative team to have some
working knowledge of typography to understand what designers are talking about
and to critique the typography and make suggestions.
Here are some of the many decisions the art director makes in designing type:
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The specific typeface or font.
The way capitalization is handled, such as all caps or lower case.
Typeface variations that come from manipulating the shape of the letterform.
The edges of the type block and its column width.
The size in which the type is set (vertical height).
Legibility or how easy it is to perceive the letters.
A set of different sizes for the Times Roman typeface is shown in the textbook.
Generally, logos are designed to last for a long time, but sometimes brands change
the design and typography in an attempt to modernize the look or match the mood
of the country. An example comes from the recent recessionary period when a
number of major brands, such as Kraft and Wal-Mart, among others, moved from
their all-caps presentation to lower case. The idea was to make their logos look
softer and less stiff.
Design Principles, Layouts, and Styles
The arrangement of the pieces in a print ad or video shot is called a layout, and it
is governed by basic principles of design. The design of an ad has both functional
and aesthetic needs. The functional side of a layout makes the message easy to
perceive; the aesthetic side makes it attractive and pleasing to the eye.
These design principles guide the eye by creating a visual path that helps the
viewer scan the elements. How all of the elements come together is a function of
the unity and balance of the design. Direction or movement is the way the
elements are positioned to lead the eye through the arrangement.
Simplicity is also a design principle, one that is in opposition to visual clutter. In
general, the fewer the elements, the stronger the impact—and idea expressed in
the phrase “less is more.” Another saying is KISS, which stands for “Keep It
Simple, Stupid.”
Principle:Design is usually improved by simplifying the number of elements.
Less is more.
For print advertising, once art directors have chosen the images and typographic
elements, they manipulate all of the visual elements on paper to produce a layout.
A layout is a plan that imposes order and at the same time creates an arrangement
that is aesthetically pleasing.
Different layouts can convey entirely different feelings about a product. Here are
some common types of ad layouts the art director might use. These apply to
brochures and magazines, as well as ads.
Picture window. One of the most common layout formats is one with a single,
dominant visual that occupies about 60 to 70 percent of the ad’s space.
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Underneath it is a headline and a copy block. The logo or signature signs off
the message at the bottom.
All art. The art fills the frame of the ad and the copy is embedded in the
picture.
Panel or grid. This layout uses a number of visuals of matched or
proportional sizes. If there are multiple panels all of the same size, the layout
can look like a window pane or comic strip panel.
Dominant type or all copy. Occasionally, you will see layouts that emphasize
the type rather than the art or even an all-copy advertisement in which the
headline is treated as type art. A copy-dominant ad may have art, but it is
either embedded in the copy or placed in a subordinate position, such as at the
bottom of the layout.
Circus. A layout that combines lots of elements—art, type, color—to
deliberately create a busy, jumbled image. This is typical of some
discount-store ads or ads for local retailers, such as tire companies.
Nonlinear. This contemporary style of layout can be read starting at any point
in the image. In other words, the direction of viewing is not ordered. This style
of ad layout works for young people who are more accustomed to nonlinear
forms.
These layout categories are functional, but there are also stylistic categories that
designers will sometimes use to refer to their approach. These include art
nouveau, art deco, modern, postmodern, grunge design, and most recently
‘beautiful messy.’ Art directors use these various historical styles to communicate
certain types of messages.
The stages in the normal development of a print ad may vary from agency to
agency or from client to client. This ad went through thumbnail sketches, which
are quick, miniature, preliminary sketches; rough layouts which show where
design elements go;semicomps and comprehensivesthat are drawn to size and
used for presentation either inside or to the client, and mechanicalswhich
assemble the elements in their final position for reproduction. The final product
that is used for actual production of the ad is a high-resolution computer file.
Composition
Layout describes how the elements in print ads are arranged. Composition refers
to the way the elements in a picture are arranged or framed through a camera lens.
Photographers and videographers handle composition in two ways: 1) they may
be able to place or arrange the elements in front of their cameras and 2) they may
have to compose the image by manipulating their own point of view if the
elements can’t be moved.
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Similar to the way layouts are developed by using sketches, video images are also
drawn and presented as storyboards, which are sketches of the scenes and key
shots in a commercial. The art director imagines the characters and setting as well
as how the characters act and move in the scene. The art director sketches in a few
key frames to provide the visual idea for a scene and how it is to be shot and how
one scene links to the scenes that follow. In addition, the storyboard sketches
reflect the position and movement of the cameras recording the scene, a
description of which is spelled out both in the script and on the storyboard.
Environmental Design
Think about the last time you went to a sit-down restaurantversus your
experiences in fast-food places. What is the difference in the way these spaces are
designed both inside and outside?What do these design features say about the
personality of the restaurant?
Environmental design is entirely different from the usual marketing
communication pieces. Architectural design and interior ambiance contribute to
brand personality. In a Polo store, you might notice details of the environment that
make that space different from Sears. Nike stores have been described as retail
theater with displays and spaces that showcase not only the shoes and apparel, but
also the sports with which they are connected.
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