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Solution Manual
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978-0078025754 Chapter 1 Lecture Note

March 26, 2020
CHAPTER 1
ACCOUNTING IN BUSINESS
Related Assignment Materials
Student Learning Objectives
Questions
Quick
Studies*
Exercises*
Problems*
Beyond the
Numbers
Conceptual objectives
C1. Explain the purpose and
importance of accounting.
1, 5
1-1
1-1, 1-4, 1-6
1-6
C2. Identify users and uses of, and
opportunities in accounting.
2, 3, 4, 6, 7,
8, 9, 10, 11,
12, 23
1-2
1-2, 1-3, 1-4
1-4, 1-8
C3. Explain why ethics are crucial to
accounting.
11
1-3
1-4, 1-5
1-3
C4. Explain generally accepted
accounting principles and define
and apply several accounting
principles.
13, 14, 15,
16, 19, 32
1-4, 1-5,
1-6, 1-16,
1-17
1-6, 1-7
1-7, 1-8, 1-9
1-3
C5. B Identify and describe the three
major activities in organizations.
(Appendix 1B)
16, 30,
31
1-21
1-13, 1-14
Analytical objectives:
A1. Define and interpret the
accounting equation and each of
its components.
17, 33, 34
1-7, 1-8,
1-9
1-8, 1-9
1-1, 1-2,
1-8, 1-10
1-1, 1-2,
1-4, 1-7,
1-9
A2. Compute and interpret return on
assets.
28
1-15
1-18
1-10, 1-11
1-1, 1-2,
1-5, 1-9
A3. A Explain the relation between
return and risk. (Appendix 1A)
29
1-12
1-1, 1-2,
1-9
Procedural objectives:
P1. Analyze business transactions
using the accounting equation.
18
1-10, 1-11
1-10, 1-11,
1-12, 1-13
1-1, 1-2, 1-7,
1-8, 1-9
1-7
P2. Identify and prepare basic
financial statements and explain
how they interrelate.
20, 21, 22,
23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 33,
34, 35
1-12, 1-13,
1-14
1-14, 1-15,
1-16, 1-17,
1-18, 1-19,
1-20
1-3, 1-4, 1-5,
1-6, 1-7, 1-8,
1-9
*See additional information on next page that pertains to these quick studies, exercises and problems.
Additional Information on Related Assignment Material
Connect (Available on the instructor’s course-specific website) repeats all numerical Quick Studies, all
Exercises and Problems Set A. Connect provides new numbers each time the Quick Study, Exercise or
Problem is worked. It allows instructors to monitor, promote, and assess student learning. It can be used
in practice, homework, or exam mode.
Synopsis of Chapter Revisions
Apple: NEW opener with new entrepreneurial assignment
Added titles to revenue and expense entries in columnar layout of transaction
analysis
Streamlined section on Dodd-Frank act
Bulleted presentation for accounting principles and fraud triangle
Deleted world map of IFRS coverage
Bulleted layout for 'fraud triangle'
Updated salary information
New discussion on FASB and IASB convergence
Updated return on assets for Dell
Chapter Outline
Notes
I. Importance of Accountingwe live in the information age, where
information, and its reliability, impacts the financial well-being of us
all.
A. Accounting Activities
Accounting is an information and measurement system that
identifies, records and communicates relevant, reliable, and
comparable information about an organizations business activities.
B. Users of Accounting Information
1. External Information Usersthose not directly involved with
running the company. Examples: shareholders (investors),
lenders, directors, external auditors, non-executive employees,
labor unions, regulators, voters, legislators, government
officials, customers, suppliers, lawyers, brokers, etc.
a. Financial Accountingarea of accounting aimed at
serving external users by providing them with general-
purpose financial statements.
b. General-Purpose Financial Statementsstatements that
have broad range of purposes which external users rely on.
2. Internal Information Usersthose directly involved in
managing and operating an organization.
a. Managerial Accountingarea of accounting that serves
the decision-making needs of internal users.
b. Internal Reportsnot subject to same rules as external
reports. They are designed with special needs of external
users in mind.
C. Opportunities in Accounting
Four broad areas of opportunities are financial, managerial,
taxation, and accounting related.
1. Private accounting offers the most opportunities.
2. Public accounting offers the next largest number of
opportunities
3. Government (and not-for-profit) agencies, including business
regulation and investigation of law violations also offer
opportunities.
II. Fundamentals of Accountingaccounting is guided by principles,
standards, concepts, and assumptions.
A. Ethicsa key concept. Ethics are beliefs that distinguish right
from wrong.
B. Fraud Trianglemodel that asserts three factors must exist for
person to commit fraud: opportunity, pressure, and rationalization.
Chapter Outline
Notes
C. Internal Controlsprocedures set up to protect company property
and equipment and insure reliable accounting reports, promotes
efficiency, and encourage adherence to company policies.
D. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)concepts
and rules that govern financial accounting. Purpose of GAAP is to
make information in accounting statements relevant, reliable and
comparable.
1. Setting Accounting Principles
a. In U.S. major rule-setting bodies are the Securities and
Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Financial
Accounting Standards Board (FASB). SEC delegated
authority to set U.S. GAAP to the FASB.
b. The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB)
issues standards (International Financial Reporting
Standards or IFRS) that identify preferred accounting
practices in the global economy. IASB hopes to create
harmony among accounting practices in different
countries.
c. Differences between U.S. GAAP and IFRS are decreasing
as the FASB and IASB pursue convergence.
2. Conceptual Framework and ConvergenceThe FASB and
IASB are attempting to converge and enhance the conceptual
framework that guides standard setting. Framework consists
of:
a. Objectivesto provide information useful to investors,
creditors, and others.
b. Qualitative Characteristicsto require information that is
relevant, reliable and comparable.
c. Elementsto define items that financial statements can
contain.
d. Recognition and Measurementto set criteria that an item
must meet for it to be recognized as an element; and how
to measure that element.
3. Principles and Assumptions of Accountingtwo types are
general principles (basic assumptions, concepts and guidelines
for preparing financial statements; stem from long used
accounting practices) and specific principles (detailed rules
used in reporting transactions; from rulings of authoritative
bodies). The four principles discussed in this chapter are:
Chapter Outline
Notes
a. Measurement principle also called the cost principle
financial statements are based on actual costs (with a
potential for subsequent adjustments to market) incurred
in business transactions. Cost is measured on a cash or
equal-to-cash basis. This principle emphasizes reliability
and verifiability; information based on cost is considered
objective. Objectivity means information is supported by
independent unbiased evidence: more than someone's
opinion.
b. Revenue recognition principlerevenue is recognized
(recorded) when earned. Proceeds need not be in cash.
Revenue is measured by cash received plus the cash value
of other items received.
c. Expense recognition principle, also called matching
principleprescribes that a company records expenses
incurred to generate revenues it reported.
d. Full disclosure principleprescribes reporting the details
behind the financial statements that would impacts users’
decisions; often in footnotes to the statements.
The four assumptions discussed in this chapter are:
a. Going-concern assumptionaccounting information
reflects the assumption that the business will continue
operating instead of being closed or sold.
b. Monetary unit assumptiontransactions and events are
expressed in monetary, or money, units. Generally this is
the currency of the country in which it operates but today
some companies express reports in more than one
monetary unit.
c. Time period assumptionthe life of the company can be
divided into time periods, such as months and years, and
that useful reports can be prepared for those periods.
d. Business entity assumptiona business is accounted for
separate from other business entities and separate from its
owner. Necessary for good decisions
4. Business Entity Legal Forms
a. Sole proprietorship is a business owned by one person
that has unlimited liability. It is a separate entity for
accounting purposes. The business is not subject to an
income tax but the owner is responsible for personal
income tax on the net income of entity.
b. Partnership is a business owned by two or more people,
called partners, who are subject to unlimited liability. The
business is not subject to an income tax, but the owners
are responsible for personal income tax on their individual
share of the net income of entity.
Chapter Outline
Notes
c. Three special partnership forms that limit liability
i. Limited partnership (LP)has a general partner(s) with
unlimited liability and a limited partner(s) with limited
liability restricted to the amount invested.
ii. Limited liability partnership (LLP)—restricts partner’s
liabilities to their own acts and the acts of individuals
under their control.
iii. Limited liability company (LLC)offers the limited
liability of a corporation and the tax treatment of a
partnership.(Note: most proprietorships and
partnerships are now organized as LLC)
e. Corporation is a business that is a separate legal entity
whose owners are called shareholders or stockholders.
These owners have limited liability. The entity is
responsible for a business income tax and the owners are
responsible for personal income tax on profits that are
distributed to them in the form of dividends.
5. Accounting Constraints There are two basic constraints on
financial reporting.
a. The materiality constraint prescribes that only information
that would influence the decisions of a reasonable person
need be disclosed. It looks at both the importance and
relative size of an amount.
b. The cost-benefit constraint prescribes that only
information with benefits of disclosure greater than the
costs of providing it need be disclosed.
c. Conservatism and industry practices are sometimes
referred to as constraints as well.
6. Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX)Law passed by congress that
requires public companies to apply both accounting oversight
and stringent internal controls to achieve more transparency,
accountability and truthfulness in reporting.
7. Dodd-Frank (Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection
Act)Law recently passed as a response to financial systems
near collapse. Details of the law are yet to be set forth by
regulators.
III. Transactions Analysis and the Accounting Equation
A. Accounting equation (Assets = Liabilities + Equity)elements of
the equation include:
1. Assetsresources a company owns or controls that are
expected to carry future benefits. (i.e. cash, supplies,
equipment and land)
2. Liabilities—creditors’ claims on assets. These claims reflect
obligations to transfer assets or provide products or services to
others.
Chapter Outline
Notes
3. Equity—owner’s claim on assets; assets minus liabilities. Also
called stockholders’ equity, shareholders’ equity or capital, net
assets or residual equity. Changes in Equityresult from stock
issuances or owner investments, revenues, dividends, and
expenses.
a. Common stockpart of contributed capital include cash and
other net assets from stockholders in exchange for stock.
Amounts stockholders invest in the company. Recorded under
the title Common Stock.
b. Revenuesare sales of products or services to customers.
Revenues increase equity (via net income) and result from a
company’s earnings activities.
c. Dividendsoutflow of assets such as cash and other assets to
stockholders (results in decrease in equity).
d. Expensescost of assets or services used to earn revenues
(results in decrease in equity).
e. Retained earnings -- accumulated revenues less accumulated
expenses and dividends since the company began.
B. Expanded Accounting Equation:
Assets = Liabilities + Common Stock Dividends + Revenues
Expenses
C. Transaction Analysiseach transaction and event always leaves
the equation in balance. (Assets = Liabilities + Equity)
1. Investment by owner:
ASSET = LIABILITIES + EQUITY
+ Cash + Common Stock
reason: investment
Increase on both sides of equation-- keeps equation in balance.
2. Purchase supplies for cash:
ASSET = LIABILITIES + EQUITY
+ Supplies
- Cash
Increase and decrease on one side of the equation keeps the
equation in balance.
3. Purchase equipment for cash:
ASSET = LIABILITIES + EQUITY
+ Equipment
Cash
Increase and decrease on one side of the equation keeps the
equation in balance.
4. Purchase supplies on credit:
ASSET = LIABILITIES + EQUITY
+ Supplies + Accounts Payable
Increase on both sides of equation keeps equation in balance.
Chapter Outline
Notes
5. Provide services for cash:
ASSET = LIABILITIES + EQUITY
+ Cash + Revenue Earned
Increase on both sides of equation keeps equation in balance.
6. Payment of expense in cash (rent):
ASSET = LIABILITIES + EQUITY
- Cash - (+ Expense)
Decrease on both sides of equation keeps equation in balance.
7. Payment of expense in cash (salaries):
ASSET = LIABILITIES + EQUITY
- Cash - (+ Expense)
Decrease on both sides of equation keeps equation in balance.
8. Provide services for credit:
ASSET = LIABILITIES + EQUITY
+Acct Rec + Revenue Earned
Increase on both sides of equation keeps equation in balance.
9. Receipt of cash from account receivable:
ASSET = LIABILITIES + EQUITY
+ Cash
- Acct Rec
Increase and decrease on one side of the equation keeps the
equation in balance.
10. Payment of accounts payable:
ASSET = LIABILITIES + EQUITY
- Cash - Accounts Payable
11. Payment of cash dividend:
ASSET = LIABILITIES + EQUITY
- Cash - (+ Dividends)
Decrease on both sides of equation keeps equation in balance.
(Note: since dividends are not expenses they are not used in
computing net income.)
Chapter Outline
Notes
IV. Financial Statements
A. The four financial statements and their purposes are:
1. Income Statement—describes a company’s revenues and
expenses along with the resulting net income or loss over a
period of time. (Net income occurs when revenues exceed
expenses. Net loss occurs when expenses exceed revenues.)
2. Statement of Retained Earningsexplains changes in equity
from net income (or loss) and from owner investment and
dividends over a period of time.
3. Balance Sheet—describes a company’s financial position
(types and amounts of assets, liabilities, and equity) at a point
in time.
4. Statement of Cash Flowsidentifies cash inflows (receipts)
and cash outflows (payments) over a period of time.
B. Statement Preparation from Transaction Analysisprepared in the
following order using the procedure indicated below.
1. Income Statementinformation about revenues and expenses
is conveniently taken from the equity columns. Total revenues
minus total expenses equals net income or loss. Notice that
stockholders’ investments and dividends are not part of
income (or loss).
2. Statement Retained Earningsreports retained earnings
changes over reporting period. Beginning retained earnings,
net income, from the income statement is added (or the net
loss is subtracted) and dividends are subtracted to arrive at the
ending retained earnings. Ending retained earnings is carried
to the Balance Sheet.
3. Balance Sheetthe ending balance of each asset is listed and
the total of this listing equals total assets. The ending balance
of each liability is listed and the total of this listing equals total
liabilities. Equity is separated into common stock and retained
earnings (note that retained earnings is taken from the
statement of retained earnings). Equity is added to total
liabilities to get total liabilities and equity. This total must
agree with total assets to prove the accounting equation. Either
the account form or the report form may be used to prepare
the balance sheet.
4. Statement of Cash Flowsthe cash column must be carefully
analyzed to organize and report cash flows in categories of
operating, investing, and financing. The net change in cash is
determined by combining the net cash flow in each of the
three categories. This change is combined with the beginning
cash. The resulting figure should be the ending cash that was
shown on the balance sheet.
Chapter Outline
Notes
V. Global ViewFinancial Accounting using U.S. GAAP is similar, but
not identical to IFRS. Similarities and differences:
A. Basic Principlesboth GAAP and IFRS include broad and similar
guidance for accounting.
B. Transaction Analysisidentical as shown in this chapter. Later,
some differences will arise. GAAP is rules-based whereas IFRS is
more principles-based.
C. Financial Statementsboth systems require preparation of the same
four basic financial statements
VI. Decision AnalysisReturn on Assets (ROA)a profitability measure.
Also called Return on Investment (ROI)
A. Useful in evaluating management, analyzing and forecasting profits,
and planning activities.
B. The return on assets is: calculated by dividing net income for a
period by average total assets. (Average total assets is determined by
adding the beginning and ending assets and dividing by 2.)
C. As with all analysis tools, results should be compared to previous
business results as well as competitor’s results and industry norms.
VII. Risk and Return AnalysisAppendix 1A
A. Riskthe uncertainty about the return we will earn on an
investment.
B. The lower the risk, the lower the return.
C. Higher risk implies higher, but riskier implied returns.
VIII. Business Activities and the Accounting EquationAppendix 1B
A. The accounting equation is derived from business activities.
B. Three major business activities are:
1. Financing activitiesactivities that provide the means
organizations use to pay for resources such as land, buildings, and
equipment to carry out plans. Two types of financing are:
a. Owner financingrefers to resources contributed by owner
including income left in the organization.
b. Non-owner (or creditor) financingrefers to resources
contributed by creditors (lenders).
2. Investing activitiesare the acquiring and disposing of resources
(assets) that an organization uses to acquire and sell its products
or services.
3. Operating activitiesinvolve using resources to research,
develop, purchase, produce, distribute, and market products and
services.
C Investing (assets) is balanced by Financing (liabilities and equity).
Operating activities is the result of investing and financing.
VISUAL #1-1
WARNING: NO MATTER WHAT HAPPENS
ALWAYS KEEP THIS SCALE
IN BALANCE
ASSETS L + E
Basic Accounting Equation
ASSETS = LIABILITIES + EQUITY
TRANSACTION ANALYSIS RULES
1) Every transaction affects at least two items.
2) Every transaction must result in a balanced equation.
TRANSACTION ANALYSIS POSSIBILITIES:
A
=
L
+
E
(1)
+
and
+
OR(2)
-
and
-
OR(3)
+ and -
and
No change
OR(4)
No change
and
+ and -

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