Type
Solution Manual
Book Title
Financial Accounting Fundamentals 5th Edition
ISBN 13
978-0078025754

978-0078025754 Appendix E Lecture Note Part 1

March 26, 2020
APPENDIX E
ACCOUNTING WITH SPECIAL JOURNALS
Related Assignment Materials
Student Learning Objectives
Questions
Quick
Studies*
Exercises*
Problems*
Beyond the
Numbers
Conceptual objectives:
C1. Identify the fundamental
principles and components of
accounting information
systems.
1, 2, 3, 4,
5, 6
E-1, E-2
E-3
C2. Explain the goals and uses of
special journals.
7, 9, 10, 11,
12
E-3, E-4,
E-7, E-10
E-2, E-4, E-7,
E-9
E-4
C3. Describe the use of controlling
accounts and subsidiary ledgers.
8, 9, 12
E-5
E-5
E-1, E-2, E-
3
E-4, E-6
Analytical objectives:
A1 Compute segment return on
assets and use it to evaluate
segment performance.
13, 14, 15
E-9
E-11
E-1, E-2,
E-5, E-8
Procedural objectives:
P1. Journalize and post transactions
using special journals.
E-6
E-1, E-3, E-6,
E-8, E-9
E-1, E-2, E-
3
E-6, E-7
P2. Prepare and prove the accuracy
of subsidiary ledgers.
E-8
E-10
E-1, E-2, E-
3
E-6
*See additional information on next page that pertains to these quick studies, exercises and problems.
Additional Information on Related Assignment Material
Synopsis of Chapter Revisions
Oimei Company: NEW opener with new entrepreneurial assignment
Streamlined several sections
Updated segment analysis using Callaway Golf
Chapter Outline
Notes
I. Fundamental System PrinciplesAccounting information systems
(AIS) collect and process data from transactions and events, organize
them in useful reports and communicate results to decision makers.
The five fundamental principles of accounting information systems
are:
A. Control Principle
Prescribes that AIS have internal controlsmethods and
procedures allowing managers to control and monitor activities.
B. Relevance Principle
Prescribes that AIS report useful, understandable, timely and
pertinent information for effective decision making.
C. Compatibility Principle
Prescribes that AIS conform with a company's activities, personnel
and structure. It also must adapt to the company’s unique
characteristics.
D. Flexibility Principle
Prescribes that AIS be able to adapt to changes in the company,
business environment, and needs of decisions makers.
E. Cost-Benefit Principle
Requires that the benefits from an activity in AIS outweigh the
costs of that activity. Decisions regarding the other system
principles are affected by this principle.
II. Components of Accounting SystemsAIS consist of people,
records, methods and equipment. Five basic components of AIS are:
A. Source Documents
Documents (paper and electronic) that provide the basic
information processed by an accounting system.
B. Input Devices
Capture information from source documents and enable its transfer
to the information system's processing component.
C. Information Processors
Systems that interpret, transform, and summarize information for
use in analysis and reporting.
D. Information Storage
System component that keeps data in a form accessible to
information processors.
E. Output Devices
Means to take information out of an accounting system and make
available to users.
Chapter Outline
Notes
III. Special Journals in Accounting
A. Basics of Special Journals
1. Special journals are used to record and post transactions of
similar type.
2. Their use reduces recording and posting labor by grouping
similar transactions and periodically posting column totals.
3. Use allows an efficient division of laboran effective control
procedure.
B. Subsidiary Ledgers
List of individual accounts with a common characteristic. Contains
detailed information on specific general ledger accounts which are
referred to as the control account.
1. Two of the most important subsidiary ledgers are:
a. Accounts receivable ledgerstores transaction data of
individual customers; controlled by Accounts Receivable
in General Ledger.
b. Accounts payable ledgerstores transaction data of
individual suppliers; controlled by Accounts Payable in
General Ledger.
2. Subsidiary ledgers are common for other general ledger
accounts such as equipment inventory, and investments.
C. Sales Journal
Used to record sales of inventory on credit.
1. Generally contains two columns. The first column is use to
record each sale and the total is posted to Accounts
Receivable (debit) and to Sales (credit) in the General Ledger
at the end of the month.
2. It has a second column to record the tracking of the perpetual
inventory cost. This column total is posted to Cost of Goods
Sold (debit) and Inventory (credit).
2. Debits to the accounts of particular customers are individually
posted to the customers account in a subsidiary accounts
receivable ledger a the same time the transaction is recorded in
the special journal.
3. A schedule (list) of accounts receivable is used to prove the
accuracy of the subsidiary ledger. The total of this schedule
must equal the balance of the Accounts Receivable controlling
account in the general ledger.
D. Cash Receipts Journal
Multicolumn journal used to record all receipts of cash.
1. Every transaction increases Cash and is recorded in special
Cash debit column. The total of this column is posted at
month end.
Chapter Outline
Notes
2. Special credit columns are usually established for Accounts
Receivable and Sales. A special debit column may be used for
Sales Discounts. A special column is established to record the
tracking of the perpetual inventory cost. Amounts in this
column are debits to Cost of Goods Sold and credits to
Inventory. Only the totals of special columns are posted to the
General Ledger.
3. A column titled "Other Accounts - Credit" is used to record all
types of receipts that are not frequent enough to justify having
special columns. Each credit in the Other Accounts column
must be posted individually.
4. Credits to the accounts of particular customers are individually
posted to the customer’s account in a subsidiary Accounts
Receivable Ledger.
E. Purchases Journal
Multicolumn journal used to record all purchases on credit.
1. In addition to a special column for Inventory debit and
Accounts Payable credit, separate columns may be established
for frequent credit purchases, such as Store Supplies debit and
Office Supplies debit.
2. Only the totals of special columns are posted to the General
Ledger. Amounts in “Other Accounts” columns are posted
individually.
3. Credits to the accounts of particular creditors are individually
posted to the subsidiary Accounts Payable Ledger.
4. A schedule (list) of accounts payable is used to prove the
accuracy of the subsidiary ledger. The total of this schedule
must equal the balance of the Accounts Payable controlling
account in the general ledger
F. Cash Disbursements (Payments) Journal
Used to record all payments of cash.
1. A Check Register is a cash disbursements journal that includes
a column for entering the number of each check.
2. A special Cash credit column is established. Only the total of
this column is posted.
3. Special columns are usually established for Accounts Payable
debit and Inventory credit (for purchase discounts received).
Only the totals of special columns are posted to the General
Ledger.
4. A column titled "Other Accounts -Debit" is used to record all
types of payments that are not frequent enough to justify
special columns. Each debit in the Other Accounts column
must be posted individually.
Chapter Outline
Notes
5. Debits to the accounts of particular creditors are individually
posted to the supplier’s account in a subsidiary Accounts
Payable Ledger.
G. General Journal Transactions
Used to record transactions that do not fit in any of the special
journals. Examples:
1. Adjusting entries.
2. Closing entries.
3. Correcting entries.
4. Other transactions may include sales returns, purchases
returns, and purchases of plant assets by issuing a note and
receipt of notes from customers.
IV. Technology-Based Accounting SystemsAIS are supported with
technology ranging from simple calculators to advanced computerized
systems
A. Computer Technology in Accountingprovides accuracy, speed,
efficiency, and convenience in performing accounting tasks.
1. Multipurpose off-the-shelf software programs are designed to
be user friendly and menu driven (Examples: Peachtree and
QuickBooks).
2. Some software can operate efficiently as an integrated
systemactions in one part of the system automatically affect
related parts (For example: recording automatically results in
posting).
3. Technology has reduced recordkeeping time and thereby
allows more time for analysis and managerial decision
making.
B. Data Processing in Accountingsystems differ with regard to
how input is entered and processed.
1. On-line processingenters and processes data as soon as
source documents are available. Updates databases
immediately. Examples: airline reservations, credit card
records, and rapid mail-order processing.
2. Batch processing accumulates source documents for a period
of time and then processes them all at once such as daily,
weekly, or monthly.
C. Computer Networks in Accounting
Links among computers giving different users and different
computers access to a common database and programs.
1. Local area network (LAN)links computers with hard-wire
hookups.
2. Large computer networks extending over long distances often
rely on modem or wireless communication.
Chapter Outline
Notes
D. Enterprise-Resource Planning (ERP) Software
Programs that manage a company's vital operations. Largest
suppliers of these programs are SAP and Oracle.
E. Cloud Computing
1. Delivery of computing as a service rather than a product.
2. Uses applications via the web instead of installing them on
individual computers.
V. Global ViewCompares U.S. GAAP to IFRS
A. System principles and components are similar worldwide.
B. Special journalssystems that employ special journal are applied
worldwide but the exact structure of the special journals is unique
to each company.
VI. Decision AnalysisSegment Return on Assets
A. A segment is a part of a company that is separately identified by
its products or services or by the geographic market it serves.
B. Segment return on assets ratioone measure of success for a
business segment.
C. Segment return on assets ratio equals the segment operating
income divided by segment average assets.
Alternate Demonstration Problem
Appendix E
Bedrock Company completed these transactions during February of the
current year:
Feb
1
Owner, F. Stone invested $100,000 cash in the business.
1
Sent Flint Company check No. 413 for a cash purchase of
inventory $ 75,000.
2
Sold inventory costing $500 on credit to Dale Dent for $800,
Invoice No. 711. (Terms of all credit sales are 2/10, n/60.)
3
Received inventory and an invoice dated January 30, terms
2/10, n/60, from Able Company, $1,750.
4
Sold inventory costing $850 on credit to Gary Glen for $1,250,
Invoice No. 712.
5
Purchased on credit from Best Company inventory, $1,855;
store supplies, $75; and office supplies, $35. Invoice dated
February 4, terms n/10, EOM.
7
Borrowed $5,000 by giving First National Bank a promissory
note payable.
9
Purchased office equipment on credit from More Company,
invoice dated February 6, terms n/10, EOM, $625.
9
Sent Able Company Check No. 414 in payment of its January
30 invoice less the discount.
11
Sold inventory costing $1,000 on credit to Carl Cole for $ 1,650
Invoice No. 713.
12
Received payment from Dale Dent of the February 2 sale less
the discount.
14
Received payment from Gary Glen of the February 4 sale less
the discount.
1
4
14
Received inventory and an invoice dated February 11, terms
2/10, n/60, from Old Company, $1,985.
Feb.
14
Issued Check No. 415, payable to Payroll, in payment of sales
salaries for the first half of the month, $855. Cashed the check
and paid the employees.
14
Cash sales for the first half of the month, $18,460. Cost of this
merchandise was $ 9,500. (Normally, cash sales are recorded
daily; they are recorded only twice in this problem to reduce
the number of repetitive entries.)
14
Post to the customer and creditor accounts and also post any
amounts that should be posted as individual amounts to the
general ledger accounts. (Normally, such items are posted
daily; but you are asked to post them only twice in this
problem.)
16
Purchased inventory on credit from Best Company, $410;
store supplies, $45; and office supplies, $30. Invoice dated
February 12, terms n/10, EOM.
17
Received a credit memorandum from Old Company for
unsatisfactory inventory received on February 14 and returned
for credit, $85.
18
Received a credit memorandum from More Company for office
equipment received on February 9 and returned for credit,
$130.
21
Received payment from Carl Cole for the sale of February 11
less the discount.
21
Issued Check No. 416 to Old Company in payment of its
invoice of February 11 less the return and the discount.
24
Sold inventory costing $475 on credit to Carl Cole for $835,
Invoice No. 714.
26
Sold inventory costing $375 on credit to Gary Glen for $775,
Invoice No. 715.
28
Issued Check No. 417, payable to Payroll, in payment of sales
salaries for the last half of the month, $855. Cashed the check
and paid the employees.
28
Cash sales for the last half of the month, $20,215. Cost of this
merchandise was $ 11,500.

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