Loyal customers are a major asset for every business. It costs far more to attract a new
customer than to retain an existing customer.
Marketing communications can support efforts to create value for existing customers.
They can serve as sources of information about product usage and new products being
They can also gather information from customers about what they value, as well as
their experiences using the products.
II. The Promotion Mix
The promotion mix concept refers to the combination and types of nonpersonal and
personal communication the organization puts forth during a specified period.
There are five elements of the promotion mix, four of which are nonpersonal forms of
communication (advertising, sales promotion, public relations, and direct marketing), one,
personal selling, which is a personal form of communication.
oAdvertising—is a paid form of nonpersonal communication about an organization, its
products, or its activities that is transmitted through a mass medium to a target
oSales promotion—is an activity or material that offers customers, sales personnel, or
resellers a direct inducement for purchasing a product.
oPublic relations—is a nonpersonal form of communication that seeks to influence the
attitude, feelings, and opinions of customers, noncustomers, stock holders, suppliers,
employees, and political bodies about the organization.
oDirect marketing—uses direct form of communication with customers. Its objective
is to generate orders, visits to retail outlets or requests for further information.
oPersonal selling—is face-to-face communication with potential buyers to inform
them about and persuade them to buy an organization’s product.
III. Integrated Marketing Communications
In many organizations, elements of the promotion mix are often managed by specialists in
different parts of the organization or, in some cases, outside the organization when an
advertising agency is used.
The goal of integrated marketing communications is to develop marketing communications
programs that coordinate and integrate all elements of promotion—advertising, sales
promotion, personal selling, and publicity—so that the organization presents a consistent
message. The concept of integrated marketing communication is illustrated in Figure 8.1.
It is generally agreed that potential buyers usually go through a process of:
oAwareness of the product of service