Chapter 03 - Consumer Behavior
desired amounts and the desired order will be the brand the consumer will like best.
oThe brand the consumer likes best is the brand the consumer will intend to purchase.
D. Purchase Decision
If no other factors intervene after the consumer has decided on the brand that is intended for
purchase, the actual purchase is a common result of search and evaluation.
Actually, a purchase involves many decisions, which include product type, brand, model,
dealer selection, and method of payment, among other factors.
Traditional risk theorists believe that consumers tend to make risk-minimizing decisions based
on their perceived definition of the particular purchase.
The perception of risk is based on the possible consequences and uncertainties involved.
Perceived risk may be either functional (related to financial and performance considerations)
or psychosocial (related to whether the product will further one’s self- or reference-group
The perceived risk literature emphasizes that consumers generally try to reduce risk in their
In general, the more information the consumer collects prior to purchase, the less likely
postpurchase dissonance is to occur.
E. Postpurchase Evaluation
In general, if the individual finds that a certain response achieves a desired goal or satisfies a
need, the success of this cue-response pattern will be remembered.
For some marketers this means that if an individual finds that a particular product fulfills the
need for which it was purchased, the probability is high that the individual will repurchase the
product the next time the need arises.
Although many studies in the area of buyer behavior center on the buyer’s attitudes, motives,
and behavior before and during the purchase decision, behavior after the purchase has also
The occurrence of postdecision dissonance is related to the concept of cognitive dissonance.
This theory states that there is often a lack of consistency or harmony among an individual’s
various cognitions, or attitudes and beliefs, after a decision has been made.
It is more likely that the intensity of the anxiety will be greater when any of the following
oThe decision is an important one psychologically or financially, or both.
oThere are a number of forgone alternatives.
oThe forgone alternatives have many favorable features.
Researchers have also studied postpurchase consumer satisfaction. Much of this work has
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