Type
Solution Manual
Book Title
Marketing 5th Edition
ISBN 13
978-0077729028

978-0077729028 Chapter 6 Lecture Note

April 8, 2019
Chapter 6
Consumer Behavior
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Tools For Instructors
Brief Chapter Outline
Learning Objectives
Chapter Overview (“Summing Up”)
Extended Chapter Outline with Teaching Tips
PowerPoint Slides with Teaching Notes
Answers to End of Chapter Learning Aids
Chapter Case Study
Additional Teaching Tips
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Brief Chapter Outline
The Consumer Decision Process
Factors Influencing the Consumer Decision Process
Involvement and Consumer Buying Decisions
Summing Up
End of Chapter Learning Aids
Chapter Case Study: The Diet Battle: Weight Watchers, Jenny Craig, and Slim-Fast
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3 Learning Objectives
LO1 Articulate the steps in the consumer buying process.
LO2 Describe the difference between functional and psychological needs.
LO3 Describe factors that affect information search.
LO4 Discuss postpurchase outcomes.
LO5 List the factors that affect the consumer decision process.
LO6 Describe how involvement influences the consumer decision process.
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.4 Chapter Overview (“Summing Up”)
LO1 Articulate the steps in the consumer buying process.
The consumer buying process consists of five main steps: First, during need recognition,
consumers simply realize they have an unsatisfied need or want that they hope to address.
Second, they begin to search for information to determine how to satisfy that need. Third, during
the alternative evaluation stage, they assess the
various options available to them to determine which is the best for their purposes. Fourth, the
purchase stage involves obtaining and using the product. Fifth and finally, consumers enter the
postpurchase stage, during which they determine whether they are satisfied or dissatisfied with
their choice.
LO2 Describe the difference between functional and psychological needs.
Functional needs pertain to the performance of a product or service. Psychological needs pertain
to the personal gratification consumers associate with a product and/or service.
LO3 Describe factors that affect information search.
The information search that people undertake varies depending on both external and internal
factors. Among the former, the type of product or service dictates whether people can make an
easy, quick decision or instead must undertake significant research to find the best purchase
option. A person’s perceptions of the benefits versus the costs of the search also determine how
much effort they undertake. These perceptions often relate closely to their perception of the risk
involved in their purchase. Finally, people’s locus of control, whether external or internal,
strongly influences their information search actions.
LO4 Discuss postpurchase outcomes.
Marketers hope that after their purchase, consumers are satisfied and pleased with their purchase,
which can lead to customer loyalty, a positive postpurchase outcome. However, consumers also
may suffer postpurchase dissonance, or buyers remorse.
LO5 List the factors that affect the consumer decision process.
The elements of the marketing mix (product, place, promotion, and price) have significant
effects, of course. In addition, social factors, such as family and culture, influence not only what
a consumer buys but also how a consumer goes about making a purchase decision. The
psychological factors that influence purchase decisions include motives attitudes, perceptions,
learning, and lifestyle. Finally, the specific factors that mark the purchase situation, like the store
setting or even the time of day, can alter people’s decision process.
LO6 Describe how involvement influences the consumer decision process.
More involved consumers, who are more interested or invested in the product or service they are
considering, tend to engage in extended problem solving. They gather lots of information,
scrutinize it carefully, and then make their decisions with caution, to minimize any risk they may
confront. In contrast, less involved consumers often engage in limited problem solving,
undertake impulse purchases, or rely on habit to make their purchase decisions.
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.5 Extended Chapter Outline With Teaching Tips
2 The Consumer Decision Process (PPT slide 6-4)
2.1Need Recognition (PPT slide 6-5)
3 Functional Needs
4 Psychological Needs
4.1Search for Information (PPT slide 6-7)
Internal Search for Information
5 External Search for Information
6 Factors Affecting Consumers’ Search Processes
7 The Perceived Benefits versus Perceived Costs of Search (PPT slide 6-8)
8 The Locus of Control (PPT slide 6-9)
9 Actual or Perceived Risk (PPT slide 6-10)
9.1Evaluation of Alternatives (PPT slide 6-12)
Attribute Sets (PPT slide 6-12)
10 Evaluate Criteria (PPT slide 6-13)
11 Consumer Decision Rules (PPT slide 6-14)
11.1 Purchase and Consumption (PPT slide 6-15)
11.2 Postpurchase
Customer Satisfaction (PPT slide 6-16)
12 Postpurchase Dissonance (PPT slide 6-17)
13 Customer Loyalty (PPT slide 6-18)
14 Undesirable Consumer Behavior (PPT slide 6-19)
Check Yourself: Several questions are offered for students to check their understanding of core
concepts. (PPT slide 6-20)
1. Name the five stages in the consumer decision process.
2. What is the difference between a need and a want?
3. Distinguish between functional and psychological needs.
Answer: Functional needs pertain to the performance of a product or service.
4. What are the various types of perceived risk?
Answer: Performance, financial, social, physiological, and psychological.
5. What are the differences between compensatory and noncompensatory decision rules?
Answer: A compensatory decision rule assumes that the consumer, when evaluating
6. How do firms enhance postpurchase satisfaction and reduce cognitive dissonance?
Answer: Marketers can take several steps to ensure postpurchase satisfaction: Build
15 Factors Influencing The Consumer Decision Process (PPT slide 6-20)
15.1 Psychological Factors (PPT slide 6-21)
15.2 Attitude (PPT slide 6-22)
Perception (PPT slide 6-23)
16 Learning (PPT slide 6-24)
17 Lifestyle (PPT slide 6-24)
17.1 Social Factors
Family (PPT slide 6-25)
18 Reference Groups (PPT slide 6-26, 27)
19 Culture (PPT slide 6-28)
19.1 Situational Factors (PPT slide 6-30)
Purchase Situation
20 Shopping Situation
21 Temporal State
Check Yourself: Several questions are offered for students to check their understanding of core
concepts. (PPT slide 6-31)
1. What are some examples of specific needs suggested by Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?
Answer: Maslow categorized five groups of needs, namely, physiological (e.g., food,
2. Which social factors likely have the most influence on (a) the purchase of a new outfit for
a job interview and (b) the choice of a college to attend?
3. List some of the tactics stores can use to influence consumers’ decision processes.
Answer: Some retailers and service providers have developed unique images that are
22 Involvement And Consumer Buying Decisions (PPT slide 6-32)
22.1 Limited Problem Solving (PPT slide 6-33)
22.2 Habitual Decision Making (PPT slide 6-33)
22.3 Extended Problem Solving (PPT slide 6-33)
22.4 Impulse Buying (PPT slide 6-33)
Check Yourself: Several questions are offered for students to check their understanding of core
concepts. (PPT slide 6-34)
1. How do low- versus high-involvement consumers process information in an
advertisement?
Answer: A high involvement consumer will scrutinize all the information provided (e.g.,
gas savings, eco-friendly) and process the key elements of the message more deeply. In
contrast, a low-involvement consumer will likely process the same advertisement or
2. What is the difference between extended versus limited problem solving?
Answer: Extended problem solving is when the customer perceives that the purchase
decision entails a lot of risk. Limited problem solving occurs during a purchase decision

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