Type
Solution Manual
Book Title
Human Relations in Organizations: Applications and Skill Building (Irwin Management) 10th Edition
ISBN 13
978-0077720568

978-0077720568 Chapter 3 Solution Manual Part 1

December 18, 2019
ATTITUDES, SELF-CONCEPT,
VALUES AND ETHICS 3
Chapter 3 Changes from the 9th Edition to the 10th Edition
The entire chapter has been updated with 82 (97%) new references to this new edition.
When the text refers back to the opening case to illustrate the application of the text to
the case, it is now identified to stand out making them easier to find.
There are only minor changes throughout the chapter to improve the content and provide
new references to support the continuing use of prior topics. Again, the use of the word
“we” has been changed in several places to you for a more personal writing style.
In the Changing Attitudes section point 4 has been changed. It now states not to have a
negative attitude towards people because they look or act differently than you do.
The details of the discussion of Determination of Job Satisfaction have been shortened
and job security has been re-written.
The key term attribution has been redefined to make it easier to understand, and the
section has been re-written.
The Building a Positive Self-Concept section now includes a discussion of why so many
people don’t keep their New Year’s resolutions.
The General Guidelines to Building a Positive Self-Concept #3 now includes the use of
self talk to improve self-concept.
The subsection Guidelines for Leading from a Spiritual Perspective still includes the
five guidelines, but with less detail.
The section Does Ethical Behavior Pay has been re-written and expanded with all new
references.
For easier understanding, the list of the seven types of justifications for unethical
behavior has been taken out and examples of each type are included.
The Global Ethics section now includes a brief mention of the Foreign Corrupt Practices
Act including the Web site where student can get more information.
The short discussion of corporate social responsibility and Figure 3.5 has been cut
because it is not the same topic as ethics.
All of the Application Situation boxes have been changed.
The North Face case is new. It also includes two role play exercises, and Question 7
includes watching North Face CEO Eric Wiseman delivering a speech to college
graduates.
AACSB standards have been updated using the 2013 AACSB Business Accreditation
Standards, General Skills Areas.
Chapter Outline
I. HOW ATTITUDES, JOB SATISFACTION, SELF-CONCEPT, VALUES AND ETHICS AFFECT BEHAVIOR,
HUMAN RELATIONS, AND PERFORMANCE
II. ATTITUDES
A. What Is an Attitude and Why are Attitudes Important?
B. How We Acquire Attitudes.
C. Management's Attitudes and How They Affect Performance.
D. Changing Attitudes.
III. JOB SATISFACTION
A. The Importance and Nature of Job Satisfaction
B. Determinants of Job Satisfaction.
C. Job Satisfaction in the United States vs. Other Countries
IV. SELF-CONCEPT
A. Self-Concept and How It Is Formed
B. Self-Efficacy
C. Attribution Theory and Self-Concept
D. Building a Positive Self-Concept
V. VALUES
A. Spirituality in the Workplace
VI. ETHICS
A. Does Ethical Behavior Pay?
B. How Personality Traits and Attitudes, Moral Development, and the Situation Affect Ethical Behavior
C. How People Justify Unethical Behavior
D. Human Relations Guides to Ethical Decisions.
E. Global Ethics
LECTURE OUTLINE PLUS
Power Point: You may use the Power Point supplement to enhance your lectures. Even if your classroom is not
equipped to use Power Point, you can review the material on your personal computer to get teaching ideas and to
copy the slides. Copies of the slides can be made into overheads.
I. HOW ATTITUDES, JOB SATISFACTION, SELF-CONCEPT, VALUES AND ETHICS AFFECT BEHAVIOR,
HUMAN RELATIONS, AND PERFORMANCE
See the text for this brief discussion.
II. ATTITUDES
A. What Is an Attitude and Why are Attitudes Important?
KT- Attitude. We all have strong beliefs and feelings towards people, things, and situations. Yes, attitudes are
important.
Work Application (WA): NOTE: All the work application questions appear in the test bank so that you can
assess students’ ability to apply the concepts to their work world. However, because student answers will vary,
there are no answers in the test bank.
WA 1- Describe your attitude about college in general, and the specific college you are attending.
SA- I have a positive attitude toward a college education because I've heard it’s an investment in your future.
Men with a college education make some $250,000 more income in a lifetime than those who don't go to college.
B. How We Acquire Attitudes.
Based on our experiences we decide our beliefs and feelings about people, things, and situations. They can be
positive, negative, or neutral.
C. Management's Attitudes and How They Affect Performance.
Self-Assessment Exercise 3-1 Your Management Attitudes—Theory X and Theory Y
Application Situations
Theory X, Theory Y, AS-3-1
1. A. Theory X. The supervisor is assuming that the employee doesn't like the job, is this correct?
4. B. Theory Y. The supervisor is using lose supervision to get the job done, s/he must have a positive
5. A. Theory X. The supervisor is using close supervision to get the job done, s/he must have a negative
1. Management attitudes. KT- Theory X, Theory Y. Supervisors can have positive attitudes towards employees-
Theory Y, negative attitudes- Theory X, or a more neutral attitude in-between these two extremes.
2. How management’s attitudes affect employees' performance. KT- Pygmalion effect. The Pygmalion effect
states that if the supervisor has a positive attitude towards employees and expects them to do well, and treats
them in a way that supports success, this results in high performance. However, negative attitudes, low
expectations, and treating employees like failures result in low performance. Discuss: Do you agree with the
Pygmalion effect? Can anyone give us an example from question 3:
LO 1. Define attitudes and explain how they affect behavior, human relations, and performance.
Attitudes are strong beliefs or feelings toward people, things, and situations. If we have a positive attitude
The supervisor’s attitude and expectations of employees and how they treat them largely determines their
performance-Pygmalion effect. Positive attitudes tend to lead to higher levels of performance than negative
attitudes, but not always.
WA 2- Give two examples of when your attitudes affected your performance. One should be a positive, and the
other a negative affect. Be sure to fully explain how the attitude affected performance.
SA- When I took History with Mr. Smith I couldn't stand him. Because of my negative attitude, I cut class more
WA 3- Give an example of when you lived up to or down to someone else's expectations of your performance-
the Pygmalion effect. It could be a parent, teacher, coach, or boss's expectations. Be specific.
SA- I remember being on the little league baseball team. I got into a slump. I struck out three times in a row.
Before my fourth time at bat my coach called me over. He said something like "Ted, I can feel a hit coming.
D. Changing Attitudes. Discuss: Before we discuss how to change attitudes lets identify positive and negative
job attitudes:
BMV-3 Video Behavior Module 3 may be shown to illustrate Theory X and Theory Y attitudes.
Exhibit 3-1, Changing Attitudes, may be shown as you cover this section.
1. Changing your attitudes. The first thing we must do is be aware of our attitudes, and make a conscious effort
to change negative attitudes into positive ones. When we catch ourselves being negative we must stop and
change to a more positive attitude. We should keep an open mind.
WA 4- Based on Self-Assessment Exercise 3.2 Job Attitudes, what will you do to improve your job attitude? Be
specific.
SA- I have problems with numbers 4 and 8, I don't accept criticism gracefully, I tend to make excuses and blame
LO 2. Describe how to change your attitudes.
The first thing we must do is be aware of our attitudes, and make a conscious effort to change negative attitudes
2. Shaping and changing employee attitudes. As it says in the text, 1. you should give employees feedback, 2.
accentuate positive conditions, 3. provide consequences, and 4. be a positive role model.
Application Situations
Job Attitudes, AS 3-2.
6. B. Negative. The person is making excuses by blaming others.
7. A. Positive. The person is encouraging him or herself.
III. JOB SATISFACTION
A. The Importance and Nature of Job Satisfaction
KT- job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is based on our attitude towards work.
WA 5- Has job or school satisfaction affected your absenteeism? Explain.
KT-job satisfaction survey. Organizations measure job satisfaction through surveys.
B. Determinants of Job Satisfaction.
How well our expectations are met determines our job satisfaction. Job satisfaction also affects our life
satisfaction. EX. If you hate your job you will probably come home in a bad mood and take it out on your family
and friends.
Exhibit 3-2, Determinants of Job Satisfaction, may be shown as you cover this section.
The seven major determinants of job satisfaction are:
(1) Satisfaction with the work itself. (2) Pay and benefits. (3) Growth and upward mobility. (4) Supervision. (5)
Coworkers. (6) Job security, (7) Attitude towards work in general.
We must realize that different people place different value on the determents of job satisfaction. EX. For
example, many people don't want to get promoted, so upward mobility is not an issue for them; but for others it
could be the most important determinant of job satisfaction.
LO 3. List seven job satisfaction determinants.
1. Satisfaction with the work itself, 2. pay and benefits, 3. growth and upward mobility, 4. supervision, 5.
Application Situations
Job Satisfaction, AS-3.3
11. A. Work itself. The person sounds satisfied with the work itself.
12. C. Mobility. A promotion is upward mobility, and the person sounds satisfied with his chance for
C. Job Satisfaction in the United States vs. Other Countries
Most Americans are satisfied with their jobs, and there are differences across cultures.
WA 6- Recall a specific job you have or had. Measure your job satisfaction for the job by rating each of the 7
determinants of job satisfaction using the scale from 1-5; then add up the total points and divide by 7, to get your
average, or overall job satisfaction level. Be sure to write down the seven determinants and your rating from 1
not satisfied to 5 satisfied.
SA- Satisfaction with the work itself- 3. Pay and benefits- 2. Growth and upward mobility- 2. Supervision-
WA 7- Has job or school satisfaction affected your performance? Explain your answer. For example, do you work
as hard and produce as much for classes or jobs that you are satisfied with, as you do for ones you are
dissatisfied with?
SA- There is a definite correlation between my school satisfaction and performance. I don't like my Biology
IV. SELF-CONCEPT
A. Self-Concept and How It Is Formed
KT- self-concept. Our overall attitude about ourselves can be positive, negative, or somewhere in-between. Our
self-concept has developed over the years as we interact with others. If others praised us and built us up we
probably have a positive self-concept. If others put us down we probably have a negative self-concept.
WA 8- Describe your self-concept.
SA- When I was young my parents split up. Through grade school I had a negative self-concept and got into
trouble. I didn't care much for myself and didn't do well in high school academically. However, I was on the
track team and did pretty well. Over the years my self-concept improved. I got accepted into a two-year college
Application Situations
Self-Concept, AS-3.4
16. A. Positive. This is a positive self-efficacy statement.
17. B. Negative. It seems as though the person is not bouncing back after a disappointment.
B. Self-Efficacy
KT- self-efficacy. While our self-concept is our overall attitude about ourselves self-efficacy is narrower in
scope. It is our belief in our chances of success in a give situation.
How self-concept and self-efficacy affect performance. KT- self-fulfilling prophecy. Generally, people with
positive self-concepts out perform those with negative self-concepts. A negative self-concept tends to lead to a
negative self-efficacy, or the belief that one will fail in a given situation. This belief in failure often leads to
failure. This phenomena is know as the self-fulfilling prophecy.
LO 4. Determine whether you have a positive self-concept and how it affects your behavior, human relations, and
performance.
Answers will vary from positive to negative self-concepts. Generally, people with positive self-concepts are
LO 5. Understand how your manager's and your own expectations affect your performance.
When supervisors and employees believe and act like the employee will be successful, employees usually are
WA 9- Give an example of when you lived up to or down to your own expectations (self-efficacy leading to
self-fulfilling prophecy).
SA- I'm on the women’s gymnastics team. Before I perform I can tell how well I will do, and the scores I will
C. Attribution Theory and Self-Concept
KT- attribution is one’s perception of the reasons for behavior.
D. Building a Positive Self-Concept
Exhibit 3-3, Developing A Positive Self-Concept may be shown as you cover this section.
1. General guidelines. The four general guidelines to building a positive self-concept are: view mistakes as a
learning experience, accept failure and bounce back, control negative behavior and thoughts, and use any
religious or spiritual beliefs you have.
LO 6. Demonstrate how to develop a more positive self-concept.
General guidelines include: 1. view mistakes as a learning experience, 2. accept failure and bounce back, 3.
An action planning steps include: 1. identify your strengths and areas that need improvement, 2. set goals and
visualize them, 3. develop a plan and implement it.
2. Action plan for building a positive self-concept. The three steps include: 1. identify your strengths and areas
than need improvement. 2. set goals and visualize them. 3. develop a plan and implement it.
SB 3.2- Use "Building a More Positive Self-Concept" and/or SB 3-3 “Giving and Accepting Compliments” to
help build student self-concepts.
WA 10- Which of the four general guidelines to building a positive self-concept need the least and most work?
Explain your answer.
SA- The easiest for me is to bounce back from failure. I'm not too hung up on being successful. The one that
V. VALUES
KT- values and value system. Our values are the things that are important to us, and shape the standards by
which we live.
Self-Assessment Exercise 3-3 Your Personal Values
SB 3-1 Self-Learning focuses on any or all three self-assessment exercises in this chapter.
WA 11- What is your attitude toward your personal values total in the eight areas of Self-Assessment Exercise
3-3? Do you plan to work at changing any of your values? Why or why not?
SA- Overall, I'm happy with it; but I was low in the area of community. When I get out of college I will spend
LO 7. Identify your personal values.
A. Spirituality in the Workplace
1. Defining spirituality in the workplace.
2. Guidelines for leading from a spiritual perspective.
1. Know thyself, 2. Act with authenticity and congruency, 3. Respect and honor the beliefs of others, 4. Be as
trusting as you can be, 5. Maintain a spiritual practice.
3. Spirit at Work Website (www.spiritatwork.com)
VI. ETHICS
KT- Ethics are the moral standards of right and wrong behavior.
Self-Assessment Exercise 3-4 How Ethical is Your Behavior.
SB EXERCISE 3-4—Ethics and Whistle Blowing is based on Self-Assessment Exercise 3-4. It provides a forum
to discuss ethical and unethical behaviors.
A. Does Ethical Behavior Pay?
Generally, the answer is yes.
B. How Personality Traits and Attitudes, Moral Development, and the Situation Affect Ethical Behavior
1. Personality Traits and Attitudes. Different personality traits lead to ethical or unethical behavior.
2. Moral Development. Moral development is the understanding of right and wrong behavior and choosing to do
the right thing. Preconventional level—you choose behavior based on self-interest and consequences.
Conventional level—you choose behavior based on the group’s acceptable behavior. Postconventional level—you
choose behavior based on universal principals of right and wrong.
LO 8. . Compare the three levels of moral development.
At the lowest level or moral development, preconventional, behavior is motivated by self-interest seeking
rewards and avoiding punishment. At the second level, conventional, behavior is motivated by meeting the
WA-12. Give an organizational example of behavior at each of the three levels of moral development.
SA- Level 1, preconventional, lying to look good. Level 2, conventional, taking your time on the job like the rest
3. The Situation. Highly competitive and unsupervised situation increase the odds of unethical behavior.
C. How People Justify Unethical Behavior
Seven ways (no longer listed in the text) include: moral justification, displacement of responsibility, diffusion of
responsibility, advantageous comparison, disregard or distortion of consequences, attribution of blame, and
euphemistic labeling.

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