Module 04 - Planning, Writing, and Revising
Teaching Tip: Have students consider other aspects of their lives where
preparation and follow-through are important. For instance, would they make a
major purchase, such as a house, without first researching where they might like
to live, what price range is comfortable for them, and how they might finance the
purchase? After the initial purchase, would they expect to also plan for such
needs as furniture, lawn care equipment, and property taxes? Draw a parallel
between such processes and the writing process, where work before and after
actually writing is critical to success.
Figure 4.1 (p. 62) shows a breakdown of how to allocate time when writing a memo.
Students can use this as a model for their own planning.
What planning should I do before I begin writing or speaking? LO 4-3
As much as you can!
The better a student is at planning for a document, the fewer drafts are
likely to be needed. Analyzing audience is discussed in detail in Module
2, and Module 8 helps students to develop reader benefits. Gathering
research is discussed in Module 22. Many students face writer’s block
even at this stage. To help them, use PP 4-14 to show students
Talking to Their Audiences
Teaching Tip: While many students will have learned these techniques in
composition courses, consider spending 15-20 minutes demonstrating each at the
board. Some students will have forgotten the specifics of invention techniques,
and others may not have learned them at all. Showing students how to use
invention techniques—spending no more than about five minutes with each
technique—can also reassure them that experienced writers actually use them.
Teaching Tip: Remind students that any time they face writer’s block, they can
return to one of the invention techniques to help them. Using invention
techniques is akin to a runner stretching before the race and stopping to stretch if
he or she gets a cramp along the way. Brainstorming, freewriting, clustering, and
talking to the audience are ways to “stretch” the brain.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution
in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.