Type
Solution Manual
Book Title
Business Communication: Building Critical Skills 6th Edition
ISBN 13
978-0073403267

978-0073403267 Chapter 23 Appendixes

April 6, 2019
Module 23 - Short Reports
Chapter 23 - Short Reports
Part 3:
Appendix 23-A:
Transitions, Topic Sentences, and Headings
Common Transitions
And, but, after, also, however, moreover, first, second, third, in
addition, likewise, for example (e.g.), indeed, to illustrate,
namely, next, specifically, in contrast, and on the other hand.
Topic Sentences
The topic sentence states the main idea and provides a “scaffold”
to structure your document.
e.g., The company and the IRS disagree about whether the
company is liable for back taxes. In fiscal 2000, the company
filed claims for starts with a refund of federal income taxes of
$3,199,000 and interest of $969,000 paid as a result of an exam-
ination of the company's federal income tax returns by the
Internal Revenue Service (IRS) for the years 1997 through 1999.
It is uncertain what amount, if any, may ultimately be recovered.
Headings
The most useful headings are informative, or talking heads:
Communication Problems Between Air Traffic Controllers
and Pilots
Selective Listening
Indirect Communication Style
Limitations of Short-Term Memory
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
23-1
Module 23 - Short Reports
Chapter 23 - Short Reports
Appendix 23-B: A Survey Write-Up Example
October 2, 2005
To: Kitty Locker
From: Jamie Lam JL
Subject: Difference Between Grade Point Averages of Students Who Use Highlighters While
Studying and Students Who Do Not Use Highlighters
On Tuesday, September 26 outside the south entrance of the Union, I surveyed 50 University of Illinois
undergraduates to find out if the use of highlighters, i.e., transparent markers, can lead to higher grades
and consequently a higher grade point average. The students I surveyed who used highlighters to
emphasize important points while studying did have higher grade point averages than the students who
did not use highlighters.
Purpose
Using a highlighter when I study makes me read more carefully, helps me remember important concepts,
and saves me studying time. If I didn't use a highlighter I would have to reread all the material before a
test to find and review the crucial points. When I use a highlighter the first time I read material, I only
have to reread the points I have highlighted.
Though I believe that highlighting helps my grades, I have often wondered whether my grades would be
the same if I didn't highlight. I conducted this survey to see whether other students who use highlighters
have higher grades than students who don't use highlighters.
Procedure
I stood outside the south entrance of the Union on Tuesday afternoon, September 26, and approached
students who were walking into and out of the Union. While I did not have any set mechanism for
choosing students, I did not formally take a random sample. When I approached each student I explained
that I was conducting a survey for my business writing class. I then proceeded to ask the student what
year he or she was. If the student was a freshman or graduate student I explained that I was only
surveying sophomores, juniors and seniors. I did not survey freshmen because they do not have a grade
point average yet; this information was crucial to my survey. If the student was willing to answer my
questions I handed him or her a clipboard with a copy of the survey and a pencil.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
23-2
Module 23 - Short Reports
Chapter 23 - Short Reports
Appendix 23-C: A Survey Write-Up Example
Kitty O. Locker 2 October 2, 2005
The results of my survey are based on the answers of the first 50 people who agreed to answer the
questions on my survey.
The questions were
1. What year are you? Soph._____ Jr. _____ Sr. ______
2. What was your grade point average for last semester?_____
3. Did you use a highlighter when you studied last semester? Yes ____ No____
4. Do you believe that a highlighter helps you study better? Yes ____ No _____
5. What college were you enrolled in last semester?
I believed that students would give more truthful answers about their GPAs if they were not put on the
spot by some stranger asking them personal questions. In order to avoid getting inaccurate answers I
devised a system which allowed the subjects to give me their GPAs and still remain anonymous.
Instead of asking students each question I allowed them to fill out the survey themselves. When students
finished answering the questions, I told them to fold the survey in half and put it in a paper sack which I
carried with me. Once the student put his or her survey in the bag I was unable to tell which student I
surveyed had completed which survey.
Results
The results of my survey indicated that students who use highlighters have higher grades. The GPA of the
34 students in my survey who used highlighters was higher than the GPA of those who didn't use
highlighters.
Table 1
GPAs of Students Who Do and Don't Use Highlighters
Use Highlighters? Average GPA
Yes 4.36 (n=34)
No 4.19 (n=16)
The .17 difference in GPAs is even bigger if we look at GPAs in specific colleges. As Table 2 shows, the
difference in the GPAs of students in Fine and Applied Arts who
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
23-3
Module 23 - Short Reports
Chapter 23 - Short Reports
Appendix 23-D: A Survey Write-Up Example
Kitty O. Locker 3 October 2, 2005
do and don't use highlighters is only .08. However, the difference for students in the College of Liberal
Arts and Sciences is 1.8.
Table 2
GPAs and Highlighters by College
Ave. GPA of Those Who Ave.GPA of Those Who
College Use Highlighters Don't Use Highlighters
Agriculture 3.95 (n=2) 3.61 (n=2)
Commerce 4.45 (n=7) 4.30 (n=2)
Engineering 4.11 (n=8) 3.92 (n=4)
Fine Arts 4.15 (n=4) 4.07 (n=6)
Liberal Arts 4.53 (n=13) 2.73 (n=2)
Students in Liberal Arts and Sciences have long reading assignments. Students do not have time to reread
everything before an exam. Students who have used highlighters can review only the portions they have
highlighted. Other students can review only part of the material.
Students in Fine and Applied Arts, however, have few reading assignments. Using a highlighter would
have little effect on the student's grades unless a student was good at drawing pictures with colored
markers.
My survey suggests that highlighting can help the GPA of any student--no matter what his or her major is.
However, the use of the highlighter is of special benefit to those students enrolled in colleges whose
curricula involve a lot of reading, such as the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences.
As Table 3 shows, all but one of the students who use highlighters believe that doing so helps their grades
and study habits.
Table 3
Students Surveyed Who Believe Highlighters Help GPA
Didn't
Students Helped Help
Used High. 33 1
Didn't Use High. 0 16
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
23-4
Module 23 - Short Reports
Chapter 23 - Short Reports
Appendix 23-E: A Survey Write-Up Example
Kitty O. Locker 4 October 2, 2005
Discussion
Though I believe that my results were accurate, my data have several limitations. While there was no bias
on my part in the way that my subjects were chosen, I did not have a random sample, so I cannot assume
that what was true of my sample is necessarily true of all students at the University.
Another factor which might have affected the results of my survey was the inaccuracy of my subjects'
answers. Though I did try to design my survey so that people could be as truthful as possible there is no
way of knowing whether the information my subjects gave me is correct. However, even an experienced
pollster like Louis Harris can never be sure of the truth of his subjects' answers--no matter how well
written the questions to the survey are.
I believe that despite the limitations of my survey the results are basically correct. Why? Because I
believe that people need to use highlighters as an aid to the learning process.
Psychologists have proven through experimentation that novelty is needed to learn. One experiment
which illustrates this point was conducted by a Dr. Rosenzweig. He raised two groups of monkeys from
infancy in two different types of environments to see how environment affects the learning abilities of
animals.
One group was raised in an enriched environment consisting of a brightly painted playpen filled with all
sorts of toys. The second group of moneys was raised in an impoverished environment, confined to dark
and drab cages with no toys. When the monkeys reached maturity, Dr. Rosenzweig found that monkeys
from the enriched environment were considerably smarter than those from the impoverished environment.
The results of this experiment showed that when there are novelties or toys of some sort present in an
environment learning capabilities of an organism present in that environment are enhanced.
Highlighters are a sort of toy for students. Studying can bore a student and cause the mind to wander.
However, using a highlighter can make a student concentrate better. The student is concentrating when he
highlights something, but he or she may also be playing in a sense. I have often seen people highlight
whole pages of a book at a time.
Thus, it isn't merely coincidence that people who use highlighters to study have higher GPAs. My survey
reveals an interesting thing about a basic human behavior--learning. Without some type of novelty the
learning process is inhibited resulting in lower GPAs. Highlighters provide the needed novelty to make
students study better and help raise their grade points.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
23-5

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