Type
Solution Manual
Book Title
Business Communication: Building Critical Skills 6th Edition
ISBN 13
978-0073403267

978-0073403267 Chapter 22 Key Lecture Points, Teaching Tips, and In-Class Exercises

April 6, 2019
Module 22 - Finding, Analyzing, and Documenting Information
Module 22
Finding, Analyzing, and Documenting Information
LO 22-1 Apply strategies for print and online information searches.
LO 22-2 Apply strategies for web page evaluation.
LO 22-3 Apply strategies for survey and interview question use.
LO 22-4 Identify respondents for surveys and interviews.
LO 22-5 Analyze information from research.
LO 22-6 Practice common citation styles for research documentation.
Module Overview
As students know, we live in the “Information Age.” However, how we locate and document
information—and assess its quality—may not be as familiar to students. While they should have
learned research skills in composition courses, the sources students used there may differ from
those in business communication. Module 22 introduces students to typical methods of finding,
analyzing, and documenting information in business.
Students today have a wealth of information literally at their fingertips. The Internet has made it
possible to tap into large databases, view company records online, and contact organizations
around the globe. Twenty-four-hour cable and satellite channels broadcast up-to-the-minute
news and images. Traditional print sources haven’t gone away (even if some students wish they
would), so libraries, both college and private, are still rich sources of information, too. In many
cases, traditional print sources are more credible than others because they are scrutinized by an
editorial board and clearly indicate who published them.
In-Class Exercise: Have students list on the board as many sources of information
they use daily as possible. Then have them identify which are sources of news
versus which are sources of entertainment. Which qualify as “research”? Why?
Which sources would be useful for business? Why? What additional sources can
they name?
This module should not be viewed as the “end all” to discussions on research. What we’ve tried
to do is give students the salient information they require as writers. For additional information,
students should seek advanced discussion in other courses or texts on statistics or research
methodologies.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
22-1
Module 22 - Finding, Analyzing, and Documenting Information
As PP 22-4 shows, research comes in two basic forms:
Primary
Secondary
Teaching Tip: Many students are already familiar with
secondary sources, such as books, journals, and annual
reports, but some students may have experience with primary research, too. Have
those students share their experiences—perhaps working with a focus group or on an
experiment at college. What amount of effort does it take to conduct primary
research? Resources? Time? If no students have experience, share any experiences
you may have with primary research.
Faulty research can lead to faulty conclusions. Repercussions in the business world include lost
revenue, poor business decisions, missed opportunities, and damage to reputations.
While Kitty and Steve have done their best to minimize jargon in BCS, doing research requires
students to learn very specific terms integral to the process. Therefore, students should pay
particular attention to the terms used throughout this module. You should use these terms
throughout your lectures on research to help them learn.
Teaching Tip: Students interested in advanced research techniques should take
courses in statistics and research methodologies at their college or university. Many
business programs require such courses, but students in other areas, including
journalism, technical writing, public relations, and advertising, will also find these
courses indispensable for their work. Help them by providing a list of appropriate
courses your institution offers.
What’s in This Supplement
This supplement is organized around the major questions posed in Module 22. It covers
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
22-2
Module 22 - Finding, Analyzing, and Documenting Information
Part 1: Key Lecture Points, Teaching Tips, and In-Class Exercises Page 359
Part 2: Answers to Textbook Assignments Page 374
Part 3: Appendixes of Handouts/Transparency Masters Page 376
PowerPoint presentations can be found at our Web page at www.mhhe.com/bcs6e.
Questions (with answers) suitable for quizzes are in the Instructors Test Bank. For student
practice quizzes with answers, see our Web page.
Part 1: Key Lecture Points, Teaching Tips, and In-Class Exercises
How can I find information online and in print? LO 22-1
Learn how to do keyword searches.
Figures 22.2 through 22.4 (pp. 361-362) list a few of the numerous
information sources online and in print that can help students while doing
research.
In-Class Exercise: Use PP 22-5 through PP 22-8 to share
these sources with students. If you are in a
computer-equipped classroom, give students 10-15 minutes
to access some of the Internet sites listed. Then let students
give short oral reports on what they found, how up-to-date
the sites are, and how useful the sites may be. If you are in a
traditional classroom, have students complete this assignment
as homework and report their findings the next class period
or in a 1- to 2-page memo to you.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
22-3
Module 22 - Finding, Analyzing, and Documenting Information
Teaching Tip: Have students review the principles in the Building a Critical Skill
box (p. 363) on using the Internet for research.
Keywords—the terms that the computer searches for—help in online searches. Many students
are already familiar with using keywords while surfing the web. Keywords in business may not
be as familiar, though.
In-Class Exercise: Have students in groups of 3-5 brainstorm for 10-15 minutes
keywords in each of the following business topics: accounting, administration,
advertising, finance, human resources, marketing, purchasing, and
transportation and logistics. If you are in a computer-equipped classroom, have
students test their keywords to see what sites come up. Let them share what they’ve
found. If you are in a traditional classroom, have students complete this assignment
as homework and report their findings the next class period or in a 1- to 2-page
memo to you.
Teaching Tip: Schedule a visit with a reference librarian at your school’s
business or general library. Chances are, he or she will have a significant
amount of information that will help students in their research. Ask the
appropriate person at your school’s data center if he or she would be willing
to share tips with your students on doing Internet research.
Using the Internet for research LO 22-2
The Internet offers a great deal of opportunity to find good research. Unfortunately, it also offers
a great deal of questionable information. Therefore, researchers should take care in both how
they approach using the Internet for research and in evaluating the quality of the research that
they can find.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
22-4
Module 22 - Finding, Analyzing, and Documenting Information
As PP 22-9 and PP 22-10 show,
To find web pages.
Use root words to find variations.
Use quotation marks for exact terms.
Uncapitalize words.
To evaluate web pages.
Use reputable sources.
Look for an author.
Check the date and source.
Compare the information with other sources.
Teaching Tip: Many students who’ve grown up using
computers may see traditional sources, such as those in print, as passé. To
help them understand the value of traditional sources, send them to the
campus library and have them locate several articles from academic journals
that you have located ahead of time. Then ask them to find the same articles
online using a search engine. How successful were they in locating those
articles? In accessing them? How easy was it to “thumb through” a printed
journal as opposed to the online source? What might their experiences
suggest about the continued value of the traditional resources?
How do I write questions for surveys and interviews? LO 22-3
Test your questions to make sure they’re neutral and clear.
As PP 22-11 and PP 22-12 show, students can use several tools to gather
primary research:
Surveys
Questionnaires
Interviews
Good research questions avoid biasing the response and making
assumptions about the subjects. Writers should carefully analyze their
audiences to make sure the language the writers use means the same thing
to the audience members.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
22-5
Module 22 - Finding, Analyzing, and Documenting Information
Teaching Tip: Use Appendix 22-A to show students the difference between
questions that are vaguely or inappropriately worded and those that are not. Ask
students to explain what specific words or terms are problematic in the inappropriate
examples. What makes the solutions better? Could the solution statements still be
worded better? How? Why?
Teaching Tip: Have students review the principles of asking specific and polite
questions in the Module 23 Building a Critical Skill box (p. 386).
Closed questions limit the number of possible responses, while open
questions have limitless possible responses. Figure 22.6 (p. 365) shows
examples of both types of questions “in action.” Branching questions
direct different respondents to different parts of the questionnaire based
on their answers to earlier questions (PP 22-13 through PP 22-15).
Teaching Tip: Use PP 22-14 to show students the difference
between open and closed questions. Ask students to share
when one type of question might be better than the other.
Why? How do they know?
Teaching Tip: Restaurants usually use “customer response”
cards to survey customers on the service and quality of food.
Ask students working in restaurants to bring response cards to class. Have the class
critique them. Do they rely on open or closed questions? Can the questions be
worded better? What assumptions might they make? If there are branching
questions, how appropriate are they? Ask the students if they would be motivated to
fill out such a card. Why or why not?
In-Class Exercise: In groups of 3-5 students each, have students spend 10-15
minutes analyzing the survey in Figure 22.5 (p. 364) for strengths and weaknesses.
What would they add or change about the survey questions? Do any questions
suggest bias? How might they be reworded? Could branching questions be added?
Which? For homework, have the students individually create a new survey based on
their group’s findings. Have them share their results with the rest of the class the
next time you meet.
In-Class Exercise: As a class, have students review the job interview questions on
pp. 496-500 in Module 29. Are they open or closed questions? Is any bias present?
If so, what kinds of bias? Ask students if they can think of any branching questions
that might be developed from some of the interview questions or interviewee
answers.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
22-6
Module 22 - Finding, Analyzing, and Documenting Information
How do I decide whom to survey or interview? LO 22-4
Use a random sample for surveys, if funds permit.
Use a judgment sample for interviews.
The population is the group researchers want to make statements about.
Because it’s unlikely researchers can poll everyone in the population
they want, they use a sample, or portion of the population (PP 22-16).
As PP 22-17 shows, there are three basic types of samples:
Random
Convenience
Judgment
Random samples are often used in market research—particularly in
testing products or services prior to their widespread release—and in
many academic studies. Chances are students may have been part of a
convenience sample at a shopping mall or on campus, when various
companies set up booths and ask students to fill our brief surveys.
Members of a professional organization may be asked to fill out
questionnaires as part of a judgment sample.
In-Class Exercise: Arrange students in three groups and assign one of the three
types of samples to each. Have the students brainstorm for 10 minutes about when
using their type of sample would be most appropriate. Have them identify specific
situations, as well as types of organizations that would find their sample type
appropriate (e.g., a marketing firm might choose to use a random sample in Ohio to
gather data on selling a product to Midwesterners). Have each group explain their
sample type, as well as share the results of their brainstorms.
Teaching Tip: Ask an instructor who teaches statistics or research methodology to
visit your class and give a short lecture on basic techniques. Alternatively, ask
someone who works for a marketing research firm to visit your class and share with
your students what his or her daily work involves.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
22-7
Module 22 - Finding, Analyzing, and Documenting Information
Teaching Tip: Some of your students may work for telemarketing or market research
firms that conduct surveys by phone. Ask them to find out what types of sampling
procedures their organization uses, and if possible, to share what kinds of surveys
they conduct and for whom. How doe the organization determine the appropriate
sample size and methodology for selecting respondents? How accurate do they
maintain the results are?
How should I analyze the information I’ve collected? LO 22-5
Look for answers to your research questions, patterns, and interesting nuggets.
While sifting through data, researchers should pay attention to stories that may be of use in the
narrative of reports, as well as “hard” facts and numerical conclusions. What comments or ideas
have respondents expressed that point to additional issues of concern?
Gathering research is not enough. Once the research is collected, researchers must review it for
quality and accuracy. Faulty research can lead to faulty conclusions—problems which impact
the business world daily.
Teaching Tip: Some students may be aware of the significant amount of market
research that goes into entertainment products. The ideas for many commercial
films, for instance, are researched heavily for audience appeal before the cameras
ever roll, and once films are complete, many are screened before test audiences for
adjustments before widespread release. Yet, the overwhelming majority of films fail
to make a profit. Ask students to consider what may be at fault here—shouldn’t
millions of dollars in research yield better results? Where might the research be
going wrong? Consider having students research how the film industry conducts its
research. What tips might the students be able to offer for achieving better results?
As PP 22-18 shows, researchers should also
Understand the source of the data.
Analyze numbers.
Analyze words.
Check your logic.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
22-8
Module 22 - Finding, Analyzing, and Documenting Information
Teaching Tip: Students often use the most convenient sources of research in their
assignments, with little regard for the veracity or soundness of that research. In
particular, they rely on Internet sources, some of which are of dubious origin. Make
sure students read this module’s Building a Critical Skill box (p. 363) prior to using
the Internet for assignment research. If you assign a report, consider limiting the
number of sources that are from the Internet—perhaps a minimum of ten sources
total, of which only three can be from the Internet.
How should I document sources? LO 22-6
Use MLA or APA format.
Proper documentation is integral to the research process: not only does
it negate accusations of plagiarism, but documentation helps other
researchers to locate sources, as well as review the research foundation
of others (PP 22-23).
Though there are many forms of documentation available, MLA and
APA are the two writers are most likely to encounter on the job. Students should already be
familiar with MLA from composition courses; chances are they’ve used APA in science or social
science courses. Bear in mind that MLA changed format, especially for web publications,
starting in 2009. Examples in BCS6e use the 2009 format, but examples included in the IRM
appendixes use the older version.
However, as many instructors know, students’ memory retention about either format may be
fleeting at best. Some students are also intimidated by the documentation process—the attention
to minutiae that seems simple and straightforward to some is daunting and oppressive to others.
Even instructors may disagree on exact formats. Like any skill, though, documentation can be
learned.
Teaching Tip: Ask students to share for 10-15 minutes their success stories using
MLA or APA, as well as some of the challenges they may have faced. Where did
they learn either format? What resources did students use? For those who
succeeded, what advice can they give to others?
Teaching Tip: Split students into two groups, one to discuss MLA, the other APA.
Give them 15-20 minutes to brainstorm similarities and differences between the two
formats. Have them list each on the board. Afterward, have each group give a
mini-lesson on using MLA or APA format.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
22-9
Module 22 - Finding, Analyzing, and Documenting Information
In-Class Exercise: Have students retype all or a portion of the citation examples in
Figure 22.7 (p. 371). By doing so, students can familiarize themselves with the
differences in style, as well as practice typing. If you are in a computer-equipped
classroom, give them 20-30 minutes. Otherwise, use this assignment as homework.
If you assign reports or research in class, specify which documentation style you want students to
use. Avoid leaving the decision up to students—by creating a class standard, students will have
clarity about which is appropriate. Tell students early in the term what your documentation
standard will be so they will have time to seek assistance if necessary.
Teaching Tip: Many college or university writing centers offer help with
documentation. In addition, both the MLA and APA have web pages that may be of
assistance. Contact MLA at www.mla.org and APA at www.apa.org. Another great
site is the Purdue University OWL site at http://owl.english.purdue.edu.
Last Word: Doing research properly is critical in both the academic and business
worlds. Companies today rely heavily on research—and researchers, particularly
those in statistical fields, are among the higher paid employees in the business world.
Whatever students can learn about the research process now undoubtedly will help
them transfer skills to the business world. Help them to learn the proper skills for
using research.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
22-10

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