Type
Solution Manual
Book Title
Business Communication: Building Critical Skills 6th Edition
ISBN 13
978-0073403267

978-0073403267 Chapter 2 Appendixes Part 2

April 6, 2019
Module 02 - Adapting Your Message to Your Audience
Appendix 2-F: Discourse Community Analysis
Kitty O. Locker 2 August 21, 2006
Another difference in terminology pertains to a type of base hit (hitting the ball and safely making it
to base). The current buzz word among sports writers for this is fleer, denoting a softly hit ball that
falls between the infield and the outfield where neither player can reach the ball. I recently saw a
stat on the number of fleers that a team gave up during a season. Our coach uses the term hitting the
seam when he wants us to hit a ball between the infield and the outfield. Our fans just call that a hit.
Topics Discussed by the Team
In games, topics focus on the team and how we are doing. Even here, detail is spared:
Coach: “Come on guys; we need some hits.”
Shortstop: “Hey, what am I doing wrong when I'm up there swinging?
Me: “You're not extending your arms over the plate.
I could tell him about the mechanics of swinging the bat, discuss the strategy of moving back from
the plate, and explain why people don't extend their arms and why they need to. However, there
isn’t time in a game to go into this sort of detail.
Some topics come up in practice but not in games. Loses are never discussed during games. Most
social communication occurs during practices. For example, the Reds’ successes and failures were
discussed at almost every practice:
“Did you see the Reds’ game last night? It was great.”
“I thought the crowd would go crazy when the game went into double overtime.
Other comments deal with current events:
“What do you think about the situation in Yugoslavia? Should the U.S. send in troops?
“No. What's happening there is awful, but it's not our job to fix it.”
Sometimes we even talk about softball:
“All right, let's take some infield. We had a hard time with turning two the other night.
Some topics would be inappropriate both in games and in practices. Cursing is another form of
language that doesn't occur on this team. Most Christians believe that curse words are inappropriate
if not immoral. This team doesn’t gossip. The Church of the Nazarene feels that gossiping is
inappropriate, but this team adheres more closely to church doctrine than other teams I’ve played
for in the same denomination. The following conversation occurred on another Church of the
Nazarene softball team in town; it wouldn’t have occurred on the Pickerington team.
2-1
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Module 02 - Adapting Your Message to Your Audience
Appendix 2-G: Discourse Community Analysis
Kitty O. Locker 3 August 21, 2006
Larry: “Did you hear about Larry W.?”
John: “About him checking himself into a mental institution?
Someone else: He did what? I thought he was having some problems after getting laid
off, but I never realized he was having that sort of problem.”
My current team would see this conversation as offensive; Larry W.’s action is nobodys business
but his own.
Even when a topic is not seen as immoral or offensive, it may be inappropriate if few players would
be interested in it or if not everyone is educated enough to discuss it. For example, I had an
Astronomy class last quarter which taught the Pauli theory. This theory would be inappropriate to
discuss since not everyone is interested in or understands nuclear physics and chemistry.
Communication Channels and Messages
Face-to-face oral communication is the most widely used channel. In practices, one person (usually
the coach) often speaks to many people at a time, telling the team what to do in certain situations or
instructing the team in the best way to swing a bat. During games, many people may simultaneously
tell a player where to throw the ball. Both these channels carry authoritarian messages, with no
expectation of verbal feedback. Those doing the telling aren't giving suggestions or emotional
support; they are giving the person with the ball an order. Cheering may be designed to elicit
nonverbal, not verbal, feedback, but its messages are supportive and motivational, not informational
or directive. Social communication usually has more people speaking. People are expected to
respond in words to what other people say; everyone has the opportunity to speak.
Nonverbal communication is common. In administrative and social communication, nonverbal
usually augments verbal channels, but it can substitute for verbal cues during practical
communication during a game or practice. For example, when the coach at third base wants to
signal a base runner to keep going, he waves his arms in a circle. When he wants the runner to stop,
he puts both hands out in front of him.
These channels differ from other discourse communities of which the same people are a part. For
example, the church finance committee uses written reports and letters, and many members of
the softball team are on the finance committee. Perhaps the difference is that the softball team is
less formal. From the church’s point of view, it is less important to keep a record of the
discourse. Even team documents that are written--such as the roster, the batting
2-2
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution
in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Module 02 - Adapting Your Message to Your Audience
Appendix 2-H: Discourse Community Analysis
Kitty O. Locker 4 August 21, 2006
lineup for a game, the schedule, or even the won-loss record--may not be saved when the season is
over.
Authority, Facts, and Credibility in This Community
Authority during games is divided between the coach and the umpire. The coach assigns positions,
determines the batting order, and tells a base runner whether to keep running. The umpire has the
final say on whether a pitch is a ball or strike and whether a runner is safe or out. Team members
rarely challenge a decision openly during a game.
Semanticists believe that only observations are facts. However, on our team, a Afact@ can be
anything the majority of players believe to be true, even though this belief is based on what
someone says. If someone who knows a great deal about the game says that a base runner was safe
when the umpire called him out, most of the teammates would agree that the runner was indeed safe
but that the umpire made the wrong call. Semantics would say that the team's theory that the runner
was safe was an inference, not a fact.
In semantics, inferences are things that individuals can prove to be true. An inference for this
softball team is a belief or theory about something based on observations. For example, if a
player pops up every time he bats, he is probably dropping his back shoulder. However, the
person inferring the cause hasn't consciously observed the dropped shoulder; instead, the
inference could be based on knowledge of the game and reading. Making valid inferences is one
way to gain credibility.
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© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution
in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Module 02 - Adapting Your Message to Your Audience
The Role of the Team for the Church and the Players
Pickerington Church of the Nazarene sees softball as recreation. It's not surprising that most of the
team’s communication serves a social function. Baseball is America's pastime, and softball is our
church's pastime. It's fun for the whole family. People don’t get beer spilled on them, nor do they
have to sit far away from the field. All they do is come and watch grown men relive their youth. For
the men on the team, it's like playing on the majors. Well, almost. The season is over now; the
softball bats need to be stored away for next year. Winter will soon be here. Then one warm spring
day, the team will decide to have practice. That's when the fun begins.
2-4
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution
in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Module 02 - Adapting Your Message to Your Audience
Appendix 2-I: Organizational Culture Analysis
September 23, 2006
To: Kitty Locker
From: Theresa Davis
Subject: The Organizational Culture of My Wednesday Night Weight Watchers Group
Weight Watchers is an international organization of people who have weight problems. Anyone who
is overweight can join the program by paying an initial service fee and then a weekly membership
fee. The main purpose of Weight Watchers is to help people lose weight safely. To a certain extent,
each class is a subculture, since different leaders have different styles. I will analyze the culture of
the Wednesday night group in Bexley.
What Happens at a Typical Meeting
The first half hour is taken up with paying the weekly fee and getting “weighed in.” The scales are
arranged so no one but the member and the leader can see the weight. Members sometimes talk
about their problems with the leader at the scales, but since there is usually a line, the leader asks
people who have time-consuming concerns to stay after the meeting. After they've weighed in,
members sit in chairs arranged in rows. Some people talk to each other; some people read the
materials.
After everyone is weighed, the leader gives an inspiring 40-minute talk on our struggle to lose
weight. She opens by telling her name and the story of her own weight loss. My leader lost 164
pounds three years ago as a Weight Watchers member. Next, the leader usually asks how the past
week went, what went well, and whether people used the strategies from the previous week. Each
meeting has a topic: dealing with holidays, handling stress, finding ways to overcome setbacks.
Sometimes the lecturer does most of the talking; sometimes members ask a lot of questions and
share concerns and strategies with each other.
Learning about the Organization
New members receive a booklet that talks not only about losing weight but also about the Weight
Watchers philosophy. Later on, the member will get other booklets--on exercise, dining out, and
dealing with eating challenges. Sometimes the leader distributes handouts, either official Weight
Watchers information or things she has brought. A free newsletter is distributed once a month.
Members can buy cookbooks and subscribe to the Weight Watchers magazine.
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© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution
in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Module 02 - Adapting Your Message to Your Audience
Appendix 2-J: Organizational Culture Analysis
Kitty O. Locker 2 September 23, 2006
Oral and interpersonal channels are even more important. Members are encouraged to get to know
each other. Although the leader often lectures, questions and discussion are encouraged. There's lots
of informal discussion at the scales and after meetings.
Visual channels are also used. Each leader brings a picture of her “before” self. Sometimes leaders
bring food to be weighed or measured to discuss portion size.
Success in Weight Watchers
New members often ask, What does it take to be successful on the Weight Watchers program?
Basically, there are four steps.
Admit to yourself that you have a weight problem.
Establish the desire to lose weight.
Establish the dedication to stick with the program by following the diet and attending the meetings.
Learn to like yourself.
People who expect immediate success or who have not come to terms with their feelings and their
bodies are less likely to be successful, even if they initially lose weight.
Someone who failed the program is a woman who lost 30 pounds in four months and then gained it
all back plus 20 additional pounds. She allowed a personal crisis to throw her off course, and she
never got back on the program. Now she hates the way she looks. She complains about her weight
but does nothing about it. She could have continued to come to meetings and turned to the group for
the support she needed to get through a stressful situation. She feels that Weight Watchers failed her,
but really she failed Weight Watchers.
If people follow the plan closely, it works. Cheating on the diet defeats the purpose. A woman who
joined six weeks ago has only lost half a pound. She is frustrated, but she is not successful because
she does not follow the program. She has not established the dedication needed for success.
In contrast, another woman is a good example of overcoming challenges and being in control. This
woman obviously loves to eat because she easily weighs over 230 pounds. But a few weeks ago she
went to the state fair and instead of eating all the fattening food sold there, she packed her own
lunch and stayed on program.
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© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution
in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Module 02 - Adapting Your Message to Your Audience
Appendix 2-K: Organizational Culture Analysis
Kitty O. Locker 3 September 23, 2006
My group leader is a “hero” to group members. She takes a great interest in our group and her
dedication is sincere. She wants to see everyone succeed. Also she is not ashamed of who she was
before she lost weight. She passes around photographs of herself when she was fat and inspires
others to lose weight.
Rituals and Rewards of Weight Watchers
Weighing in at every meeting is the most obvious ritual. Another ritual is announcing the total
weight lost by the group that week.
Rewards are so common they are almost rituals, too. Members who have lost 10 pounds get red
ribbons; they get gold stars to put on the ribbon for each additional 10-pound loss. People who are
in “new numbers (down into a lower number in the tens column) get silver stars to put by the
weight in the membership book. People also get stickers or coupons for exercising or drinking the
full eight glasses of water a day. Often the group claps for people who share specific weight losses
with the group--even small ones.
A member who reaches goal weight gets a certificate and a silver pin. When he or she maintains
goal weight for six weeks, the member gets a gold pin which together with the silver pin is a
stylized “WW” and becomes a lifetime member. Lifetime members attend meetings free as long as
they check in once a month and don’t go over two pounds over goal weight. Someone who is more
than two pounds over pays the weekly fee (not the initial fee) until he or she is back to goal.
Why Choose the Weight Watchers Program?
I joined the program because I know several people who lost weight on it. I did not know of any other weight loss
program that has the success that Weight Watchers does. The people in my group and my leader are very supportive.
Also, Weight Watchers is affordable. There is a small registration fee and a weekly membership fee. I don’t have to
buy special food, so the program is economical as well as effective.
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© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution
in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

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