Type
Solution Manual
Book Title
Business Communication: Building Critical Skills 6th Edition
ISBN 13
978-0073403267

978-0073403267 Chapter 14 Key Lecture Points, Teaching Tips, and In-Class Exercises

April 6, 2019
Module 14 - Editing for Grammar and Punctuation
Module 14
Editing for Grammar and Punctuation
LO 14-1 Apply strategies for professional image creation with grammar and mechanics.
LO 14-2 Apply principles for common grammatical error correction.
LO 14-3 Apply principles for sentence error correction.
LO 14-4 Evaluate situations for comma use.
LO 14-5 Apply principles for punctuation use inside sentences.
LO 14-6 Apply principles for source quotation.
LO 14-7 Apply principles for number and date use.
LO 14-8 Apply standard proofreading marks throughout the writing process.
Module Overview
Module 14 covers common grammar issues. It’s not comprehensive but is likely to touch on
most if not all of the concerns your students will have. Kitty and Steve suggest assigning it and
Module 15 (“Choosing the Right Word”) and Module 16 (“Revising Sentences and
Paragraphs”) early in your course so students have time to review their challenges with language
issues.
Mention “grammar” in class and many students’ (and some instructors’) eyes glaze over. Even
those who can recite the rulesas may be the case with some of your English as Second
Language studentshave difficulty actually using them. Therefore, do your best to explain the
concepts in practice rather than rely on rote memorization of rules.
Teaching Tip: Students, particularly those in low-level or “hands-on” jobs,
sometimes wonder why grammar is important. After all, they’ve been
communicating with people all their lives, grammar errors and all. Share with them
that people in the workplace may judge them based on their grammar use,
particularly as they rise in the organization. Moreover, using grammar correctly is
akin to wearing appropriate clothing for work or keeping a desk or office neat
while neither may directly affect the employee’s performance, people may still make
decisions about them based on such factors.
Where possible, assign problems from the modules to students. Work through some in class;
perhaps let students complete problems in groups. Encourage students to read, often and with
variety. Bring students a list of business-oriented books or publications you read regularly to get
them started. Actually seeing proper grammar in use can help students to learn it.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-1
Module 14 - Editing for Grammar and Punctuation
Kitty and Steve advise against making grammar the emphasis of your course. Certainly, expect
standard edited English in student assignments and teach students the appropriate rules and
forms. However, keep your course focused on rhetorical concepts in business communication.
Teaching Tip: Have students complete a diagnostic writing sample the first day of
class. Use as a prompt: “Tell me about the challenges you’ve faced in previous
writing courses or in writing on the job, including issues with spelling and
grammar.” See what challenges they name, as well as what problems occur in the
actual sample. If there are commonalities, incorporate mini-lessons on them in your
lecturesperhaps also assign as homework the appropriate Polishing Your Prose
problems or exercises from throughout Unit 4. Within a week, return the diagnostic
with comments on what resources are available to help students.
In-Class Exercise: After assessing the diagnostic, create groups of 3-5 students each.
Assign each group a grammar concern they share and have students present a 10- to
15-minute “lesson” in class. Schedule these lessons throughout the quarter. (This
assignment is particularly useful because it requires students to research their
concerns while doubling as an opportunity to polish oral presentation skills.)
Teaching Tip: The diagnostic may reveal that only a portion of Module 14 needs to
be covered in class (those grammar issues most problematic for students). If so, you
should still consider assigning the appropriate problems to students as homework.
Polishing Your Prose exercises are ideal for this purpose.
Students who have extreme difficulty with grammar are better served seeking help outside of
your coursefrom you during office hours, a personal tutor, a grammar textbook, your college
or university writing center, or any combination. You might also refer them to a course on
grammar that your school may offer. Many schools offer such courses through their
developmental education departments; some schools may offer grammar workshops free of
charge or on the web.
Teaching Tip: Schedule a visit from a representative of your writing center. Prior to
the visit, have students compose questions on specific grammar issues so that the
representative can explain how the writing center can help them. Students not only
will learn about the centers services but also gain a contact name for their visits.
Teaching Tip: Remind students that while important, grammar should be assessed
late in the revision process. As Module 4 suggests, there’s no point correcting
grammar in a sentence or section that may be cut.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-2
Module 14 - Editing for Grammar and Punctuation
What’s in This Supplement
This supplement is organized around the major questions posed in Module 14. It covers
Part 1: Key Lecture Points, Teaching Tips, and In-Class Exercises Page 238
Part 2: Answers to Textbook Assignments Page 252
Part 3: Appendixes with Handouts/Transparency Masters Page 255
PowerPoint presentations can be found at our Web page at www.mhhe.com/bcs6e.
Questions (with answers) suitable for quizzes are in the Instructors Test Bank. For student
practice quizzes with answers, see our Web page.
Part 1: Key Lecture Points, Teaching Tips, and In-Class Exercises
Creating a professional image, 2 LO 14-1
As this BCS box suggests, grammar and mechanics present a paradox, that
is, while they may be the least important part of a message, they nonetheless
suggest to many business leaders notions of professionalism. Therefore, a
wise writer pays close attention to grammar and mechanics, while also
acknowledging, perhaps, that no one is perfect.
Use PP 14-4 and PP 14-5 to show students that
Many business leaders see good grammar and mechanics as essential
to creating effective messages—and to demonstrating quality.
Errors can create a negative image of the writer.
Occasionally, errors in grammar and punctuation hide the
writers meaning.
Don’t try to fix errors in your first and second drafts.
Most writers make a small number of grammatical errors
repeatedly.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-3
Module 14 - Editing for Grammar and Punctuation
As diligent as writers are, they are still likely to make mistakes. While they shouldn’t be fearful
of grammar and mechanics, they should understand that even though many people have a
tolerance for errors, some may not. Often, those are the audiences hardest to please.
What grammatical errors do I need to be able to fix? LO 14-2
Learn to fix these six errors.
Six grammar errors are common in students’ papers, as shown on PP 14-6:
Subject-Verb & Noun-Pronoun Agreement
Pronoun Case
Dangling Modifiers
Misplaced Modifiers
Parallel Structure
Predication Errors
For some of your students, these terms will be new or confusing. Use the examples found in the
module to help students understand these concepts.
Teaching Tip: For 10-15 minutes, allow students to work in groups of 3-5 each.
Assign each group one of the six grammar concepts and have them explain the basic
concept to the rest of the class. Then, ask students as a group to explain the errors
found in PP 14-7 through 14-9; PP 14-11 through PP 14-16.
In-Class Exercise: Have students complete Exercise 14.10 or 14.11 on pp. 253-254
in class. Ask them to share their solutions with the rest of the class.
In-Class Exercise: Have students complete fix the errors in Appendix 14-A in class.
Ask them to share their solutions with the rest of the class.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-4
Module 14 - Editing for Grammar and Punctuation
How can I fix sentence errors? LO 14-3
Learn to recognize main clauses.
Common errors in sentences are explained on PP 14-17.
Teaching Tip: Rather than just put up static PowerPoint slides
with rules, show students some examples of sentence-level
problems, as well as the solutions. Let them work through
them with you at the blackboard or online. Often, by doing
the work rather than just trying to remember the rules,
students gain a better appreciation of how to fix problems.
Sentences can contain
Main Clauses.
Subordinate Clauses.
Phrases.
Teaching Tip: Discussions on grammar often break down when students confront
technical termsour fields’ jargonand are overwhelmed. While Kitty and Steve
know of no way to discuss grammar without using the proper terms, we have tried to
minimize the jargon. In your discussion, focus less on terms like “clause” or
“phrase” and more on terms like “subordinate”relate the notion of such terms to
hierarchies they may already know; for instance, a subordinate reports to a
supervisor t work and is necessary for the organization to function. In much the
same way, a subordinate clause supports the main actor and action of the sentence,
and is necessary to helping the reader fully understand them.
Use PP 14-18 to introduce students to a second level of grammar errors
common in their papers:
Comma Splices
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-5
Module 14 - Editing for Grammar and Punctuation
Teaching Tip: Comma splices are common in student papersyet, the error often
eludes students, who may see commas simply and erroneously as “connectors.” Use
a film analogy to help video savvy students understand what a splice is; in film
editing, splicing means joining two segments of film together to make one longer
segment. A comma splice tries to do the same with independent clauses. But just as
pasting two scenes that have nothing to do with one another would make the final
segment abrupt and incomprehensible, a comma splice tries to meld two independent
clauses together inappropriately. Fixing the spliceby adding the appropriate
coordinating conjunction, for instanceproperly connects the clauses, just as a “cut”
or “wipe” in a film splice bridges one scene to another.
Run-On Sentences
Teaching Tip: Students often think of run-ons simply as sentences that are “too
long.” While many if not most run-ons are long, they don’t have to be. Help
students to understand that it is the lack of proper punctuationa comma followed
by the appropriate conjunctionthat often makes a sentence a run-on.
In-Class Exercise: Have students complete the Polishing Your Prose (“Matters on
Which Experts Disagree”) exercises on p. 255.
Sentence Fragments
Teaching Tip: Sentence fragments lack a necessary elementtypically a subject or
verb or both. Many students commit this error because they see it so often in
advertisements, poetry, or fiction. While sentence fragments are appropriate in
documents like résuméswhere the subject is understood to be the writerand for
stylistic reasons in fictionto speed up action or simulate fragmented thoughts
fragments are usually unnecessary in business communication.
In-Class Exercise: For 10-15 minutes, have students complete Exercise 14.15 on p.
255. Afterward, have students share their solutions with the class. Which seems to
work the best? Why?
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-6
Module 14 - Editing for Grammar and Punctuation
Should I put a comma every place I’d take a breath? LO 14-4
No! Commas are not breaths.
Among the half-truths that exist about English style and grammar is the notion of treating a
comma as a breath. Clearly, commas function beyond that notionto separate items in a list, for
instanceand using a “breath” to measure where a comma should fall is a highly individualistic
and therefore fallible methodology.
Instead, as shown on PP 14-19, show your students that a comma is just one
of several punctuation marks that alert the reader to what comes next.
(Commas are covered in more detail under the next heading; the discussion
here is a good preamble and a less technical introduction to the later
discussion.)
Teaching Tip: Many writers now treat commas as optional in specific situations. For
instance, some argue that the comma before the “and” in a list is optional while
others say it must be used. In that respect, comma use is becoming a matter of style
on which some experts disagree (even the authors of this text occasionally differ in
opinion!). Explain to your students that discourse community and organizational
culture may affect the choice of where and when to use a comma. However,
whatever the standards of the discourse community, they must ultimately fall within
the options allowed by standard edited English.
What punctuation should I use inside sentences? LO 14-5
Use punctuation to make your meaning clear to your reader.
Eight forms of punctuation inside sentences are important:
Apostrophes
Colons
Commas
Dashes
Hyphens
Parentheses
Periods
Semicolons
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-7
Module 14 - Editing for Grammar and Punctuation
Teaching Tip: Show students each of these forms of punctuation in use (in very
simple sentences—you can use examples from this module or from the Polishing
Your Prose exercises throughout the book). Then ask eight students to go to the
board and create their own, more complex sentences using the punctuation forms
(one form of punctuation per student). Ask eight more, and so forth, until
everyone’s had a turn. When they’re finished, have the students evaluate the
sentences for correctness.
Teaching Tip: Have students get into eight groups and assign one of the forms of
punctuation to each. Give each group 10-15 minutes to confer, then have them give
the class a “mini-lesson” on the form of punctuation, using examples from the
textbook where possible.
In-Class Exercise: For 10-15 minutes, have students complete Exercise 14.14 on p.
254. Afterward, have students share their solutions with the class. Which seems to
work the best? Why?
What do I use when I quote sources? LO 14-6
Quotation marks, square brackets, ellipses, and underlining or italics.
As PP 14-21 and PP 14-22 show, four forms of punctuation for quoting
sources are important:
Quotation Marks
Square Brackets
Ellipses
Underlining & Italics
In all likelihood, students will have used these forms of punctuation while
quoting sources in their composition courses. However, some of them will
still be confused, particularly with regard to when to use quotation marks
(titles of “short works”) versus when to use underlining or italics (titles of
“long works”).
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-8
Module 14 - Editing for Grammar and Punctuation
Teaching Tip: A good way to bring students up to speed on using these punctuation
marks is to bring in a copy of a Works Cited page you have permission to use. (You
could also use bibliographic pages from the textbook.) As a homework assignment,
have students retype it verbatim. This assignment not only gives students an
opportunity to practice typing but also lets them see bibliographic information “in
action.”
How should I write numbers and dates? LO 14-7
Usually, spell out numbers under 10 and at the beginning of sentences.
As PP 14-23 shows, in general writers should spell out numbers from one
to nine and use numerals for anything higher. Use numerals for days and
years in dates and in amounts of money. Spell out numbers when they
begin a sentence (or rewrite the sentence so that the number falls
elsewhere).
How do I mark errors I find in proofreading? LO 14-8
Use these standard proofreading symbols.
Use PP 14-24 and PP 14-25 to show typical proofreaders marks (also
shown in Figure 14.3, p. 252). In Appendix 14-B, we’ve left off the
proofreading symbols; use a transparency marker to draw symbols to
further illustrate them to students or fill out the sheet with students in
class. For many students, these marks will be new, and they will have to
have practice using them.
Teaching Tip: Use these proofreading marks when responding
to your students’ papers. Encourage your students to use the
same marks when peer-reviewing with other students.
Last Word: Grammar is not the easiest element of writing for
students to learn. Many students will be frustrated; some will give up trying. Part of
your job may be to act as a “cheerleader” to encourage these students to try. Motivate
them positively. Help students to learn by encouraging them to use the correct forms
of grammar whenever they write or communicate.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-9
Module 14 - Editing for Grammar and Punctuation
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-10

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