Type
Solution Manual
Book Title
Business Communication: Building Critical Skills 6th Edition
ISBN 13
978-0073403267

978-0073403267 Chapter 12 Key Lecture Points, Teaching Tips, and In-Class Exercises

April 6, 2019
Module 12 - Persuasive Messages
Module 12
Persuasive Messages
LO 12-1 Compare strategies for persuasive messages.
LO 12-2 Create subject lines for persuasive messages.
LO 12-3 Apply strategies for persuasive message organization.
LO 12-4 Identify solutions for objections.
LO 12-5 Recognize techniques for more persuasive messages.
LO 12-6 Apply strategies for common ground solutions.
LO 12-7 List common kinds of persuasive messages.
LO 12-8 Apply strategies for persuasive message analysis with PAIBOC.
Module Overview
Persuasion is a critical skill in business, regardless of whether an employee’s primary
responsibility is sales, accounting, engineering, communication, or clerical support. All jobs at
some time or another will require persuasion. Learning the particulars of the persuasive process
—and understanding when to use them—can give your students a lifelong advantage.
As PP 12-4 shows, common persuasive messages are
Orders and requests.
Proposals and recommendations.
Sales and fund-raising letters.
Job application letters.
Reports, if they recommend action.
Efforts to change people’s behavior.
As shown on PP 12-5, primary purposes include
To have the reader act.
To provide enough information so that the reader knows
exactly what to do.
To overcome any objections that might prevent or delay
action.
and secondary purposes (PP 12-6) include
To build a good image of the writer.
To build a good image of the writers organization.
To build a good relationship between the writer and reader.
To reduce or eliminate future correspondence on the same
subject.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
12-1
Teaching Tip: Ask students what motivates them. For instance, what motivates
them to try to do well in school? What motivates them to work a job? What
motivates them to associate with friends? Ask students what form of motivation
lasts longer, internal or external. What forms of motivation do not last? Why?
In-Class Exercise: Ask students to bring in examples of common persuasive
messages they have received, blocking out any personal information. These can
include sales letters, fundraising requests, or even job application letters. Have
students critique each message for language and content. Which are successful?
Which are not? How do students feel about the individual or organization that sent
the message?
Point out that Figure 12.10 on p. 208 can be used as a checklist for writing persuasive messages.
What’s in This Supplement
This supplement is organized around the major questions posed in Module 12. It covers
Part 1: Key Lecture Points, Teaching Tips, and In-Class Exercises Page 187
Part 2: Answers to Textbook Assignments Page 209
Part 3: Appendixes of Handouts/Transparency Masters Page 216
PowerPoint presentations can be found at our Web page at www.mhhe.com/bcs6e.
Questions (with answers) suitable for quizzes are in the Instructors Test Bank. For student
practice quizzes with answers, see our Web page.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
12-2
Module 12 - Persuasive Messages
Part 1: Key Lecture Points, Teaching Tips, and In-Class Exercises
What is the best persuasive strategy? LO 12-1
It depends on how much and what kinds of resistance you expect.
Remind students that for lasting change, they should use a combination of strategies, organized
through a persuasive campaign. For short-term effect, two basic patterns are useful: direct
request and problem-solving.
As PP 12-7 shows, use the direct request pattern when
The audience will do as you ask without any resistance.
You need a response only from the people who are willing to act.
The audience is busy and may not read all the messages received.
Your organization’s culture prefers direct requests.
Use the problem-solving pattern (PP 12-8) when
The audience is likely to object to doing as you ask.
You need action from everyone.
You trust the audience to read the entire message.
You expect logic to be more important than emotion in the
decision.
Teaching Tip: No single persuasive strategy will work in all situations. Further,
organizational culture and discourse community affect the strategy writers should
choose. Encourage students to review the audience analysis strategies in Module 2,
as well as information about intercultural communication in Module 3.
In-Class Exercise: For 10-15 minutes, have students share situations where they
worked to persuade someone. These situations can be as mundane as asking for the
keys to the family car or as infrequent as interviewing for a job. What strategies did
the students use? How successful were they? Now that they’ve seen the strategies
in this book, what might they have done differently?
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
12-3
What is the best subject line for a persuasive message? LO 12-2
For direct requests, use the request, the topic, or a question.
For problem-solving messages, use a directed subject line or a reader benefit.
Students must understand that the choice of subject line depends on the type of request being
made.
As PP 12-9 shows
In a direct request, put the request, the topic of the request, or a
question in the subject line.
In a problem-solving message, use a directed subject line: one that
makes your stance on the issue clear. You can also use common
ground or a reader benefit to show readers that the message will
help them.
Teaching Tip: Remind students that subject lines should be positive or neutral, even
if the first paragraph of the problem-solving message is negative.
In-Class Exercise: For 10-15 minutes, have students in groups of 3-5 write subject
lines for Exercise 12.13 on p. 211. Afterward, have the groups share their solutions
with the class. Which seems to work the best? Why?
How should I organize persuasive messages? LO 12-3
In direct requests, start with the request.
In a problem-solving message, start with the problem you share.
When writing direct requests in the U.S. and Canada, students should follow this pattern
(illustrated on PP 12-11):
1. Consider asking immediately for the information or service you
want.
2. Give readers all the information and details they will need to act on
your request.
3. Ask for the action you want.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
12-4
Module 12 - Persuasive Messages
Teaching Tip: As the module suggests, a direct request should be direct. That is, the
reader should not have to guess what the writer wants. Have students consider then
whether or not this approach would work in cultures where a direct request might be
considered rude. According to Module 3, what cultures might these be? What
approach would make sense instead? How would the writer know whether to use the
direct or another approach?
Teaching Tip: Have students review Figure 12.2 on p. 192. Ask them what works in
the example. Does it follow the direct request pattern? Does the tone work? What
about content? Length? What can they learn from this example about writing their
own direct requests?
In-Class Exercise: For 20-25 minutes, have students in groups of 3-5 complete
Exercise 12.16 on p. 212. Afterward, have the groups share their solutions with the
class—which seems to work the best? Why?
When writing problem-solving requests in the U.S. and Canada, students should follow this
pattern (also illustrated on PP 12-14):
1. Describe the problem you both share (which your request will
solve).
2. Give the details of the problem.
3. Explain the solution to the problem.
4. Show that any negative elements are outweighed by the
disadvantages.
5. Summarize any additional benefits of the solution.
6. Ask for the action you want.
Teaching Tip: As the module suggests, a problem-solving request should be indirect.
That is, the reader should see reasons why the request is important to them before the
actual request. Ask students when they think readers would prefer an indirect
approach. What are some “real world” examples (e.g., newspaper editorials;
fundraising letters) they might know? In what situations would it be inappropriate to
send an indirect request? Why?
Teaching Tip: Figure 12.4 (p. 194) shows a problem-solving persuasive message.
Have students as a group analyze it. Does it follow the pattern of organization? Ask
them what works in the example. Does it follow the direct request pattern? Does the
tone work? What about content? Length? What can they learn from this example
about writing their own direct requests?
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
12-5
How do I identify and overcome objections? LO 12-4
Talk to your audience. Then try these techniques.
If the actual audience is not available for students to ask, they should seek out
knowledgeable people in their organization or community. Writers should
phrase questions nondefensively and ask follow-up questions (PP 12-17).
Teaching Tip: People have a vested interest in something if they
benefit directly from keeping things the way they are. Ask
students what specific things people feel vested in. For instance, what might a
homeowner see as important? A parent? An employee two years from retirement?
An employee just starting out? The typical college student? How can even general
knowledge of these peoples’ interests help a writer to compose a persuasive
message?
As PP 12-18 and 12-19 show, students should learn seven strategies to
counter objections from readers:
1. Specify how much time and/or money is required.
2. Put the time and/or money in the context of the benefits they bring.
3. Show that money spent now will save money in the long run.
4. Show that doing as you ask will benefit a group or cause the reader
supports.
5. Show the reader that sacrifice is necessary to achieve a more
important goal.
6. Show that the advantages as a group outweigh disadvantages.
7. Turn a disadvantage into an opportunity.
In-Class Exercise: For 20-25 minutes, have students in groups of
3-5 complete Exercise 12.18 on p. 212. Afterward, have the groups share their
solutions with the class. Which seems to work the best? Why?
What other techniques can make my messages more persuasive? LO 12-5
Build credibility and emotional appeal. Use the right tone and offer a reason to act
promptly.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
12-6
Module 12 - Persuasive Messages
As PP 12-20 shows, persuasive messages—whether short-term or
long-term—will be more effective if the writer
Builds credibility.
Builds emotional appeal.
Uses the right tone.
Offers a reason for the reader to act promptly.
Build Credibility: Credibility is the audience’s response to the writer as the source of the
message. In order to do so, writers should be factual, specific, and reliable.
Teaching Tip: People usually see credible people as powerful, attractive, or
trustworthy, or as an expert at something. Ask students who they find credible—
these examples could be people they know, celebrities, or even historical figures.
Why do these people seem credible? What values or ideals do they represent? Make
a master list and then ask the class to share thoughts and feelings. Does everyone
agree with the names on the list? Why or why not?
Emotional Appeal: This approach means making the reader want to do what the writer asks.
Emotional appeal works best when people want to be persuaded. A powerful technique to use is
psychological description, as discussed in Module 8. Telling a story also works; recent research
suggests that stories are more persuasive because people remember them.
Teaching Tip: Have students research creative writing techniques to understand more
about telling stories and using narrative. What tips can they share with the class for
effective story-telling? Create a master list for the class.
In-Class Exercise: Ask students to write a 1- to 2-page story about how they got to
college. The story can start at the point they made the decision to attend and end
with the first day of class. Or, it could start with memories of the first day of
kindergarten and work up to the point they made the decision to attend college.
Students should use strong description and dialogue, as well as such standard
story-telling elements as character, setting, plot, and conflict. Ask for one or two
volunteers to read their stories to the class.
Use the Right Tone: Typically, when writing to coworkers, superiors, or people outside the
organization, writers need to be forceful but polite. Giving orders to subordinates may be OK,
but don’t sound parental or preachy.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
12-7
Teaching Tip: Ask students to share experiences when they felt they were “talked
down to.” How did it feel? What words or tone did the speaker use? What would
the student have preferred? Did the student comply with the wishes of the speaker?
Why or why not? How well?
Offer a Reason for the Reader to Act Promptly: Writers should request action by a specific
date because the longer people delay, the less likely they are to carry through with an action. At
least a week or two is usually appropriate. Writers should show why the time limit is necessary
by showing that it is real, that acting now will save time or money, and that there is a cost to
delaying action.
Building common ground LO 12-6
A common ground avoids the me-against-you of some persuasive situations and suggests that
both you and your audience have a mutual interest in solving the problems you face. But in a
nation as diverse as the United States (and a world increasingly becoming more integrated),
finding a common ground can be challenging.
Module 12’s BCS box shows students some of the strategies for finding and incorporating a
common ground in messages. As PP 12-22 suggests,
A common ground avoids the me-against-you of some persuasive
situations and suggests both you and your audience have a mutual
interest in solving the problems you face.
To find a common ground,
Analyze the audience.
Understand its biases, objections, and needs.
Identify with the audience so that you can make the
audience identify with you.
Teaching Tip: People often see the differences in others before they see the
similarities. But while culture and ethnicity can be sources of difference, human
beings generally share many of the same ideas and expectations. Ask students to
take 5-10 minutes to brainstorm what we as human beings have in common. What,
for instance, do we want for our lives? Those of our children? What concerns might
we have about such basic life issues as food, shelter, and clothing? Differences are
likely to show up, too, but ask students to find the sources of commonality rather
than focus on the rest.
What are the most common kinds of persuasive messages? LO 12-7
Orders, collection letters, performance appraisals, and letters of recommendation.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
12-8
Module 12 - Persuasive Messages
Students will write a variety of persuasive messages on the job. The more common ones are
discussed in detail throughout this module. As PP 12-4 shows, these include
Orders: Be specific, tell the company what you want if a model number is no longer
available, double-check your arithmetic, and add sales tax and shipping charges.
Collection Letters: Send a series, a week or two apart for each letter. Early letters are
gentle. Middle letters are more assertive, negotiating for payment but reminding the
reader that payment is necessary. Late letters threaten legal action if the bill is not paid.
Performance Appraisals: Subordinates should prepare by listing achievements and
goals. Use specifics, not inferences. Good supervisors try to identify problems and
possible causes.
Teaching Tip: Use Figure 12.5 (p. 201) to discuss performance appraisals. Ask
students to critique it. Does the tone work? What about content? Does it support
the concepts discussed throughout this module?
Teaching Tip: Writers should avoid using inferences when writing performance
appraisals. Instead, use specific observations. To help students understand, use
Appendix 12-A to give them a chance to practice in class. (Answers: 1. O; 2. J; 3.
I; 4. J; 5. I; 6. I; 7. J)
Letters of Recommendation: Use specifics and make clear the reasons why the
employee is being recommended. Some companies today take a conservative approach
to writing letters of recommendation. Their policies might require revealing only dates of
employment or job titles. An example is on Appendix 12-B.
Teaching Tip: Ask students to get into four groups and explain to the class the
concepts involved with writing each kind of message. Assemble the groups one
class period ahead of the discussion and ask students to bring in examples they may
have. Block out any personal information and make overheads for the students to
use in their discussions.
Teaching Tip: The module gives specific information on how to write each kind of
message. While you should discuss each in class, poll students to find out what
fields they plan to go into and which of these messages they’re more likely to write.
Focus on that type in your lectures. To give students more experience, choose an
exercise from the back of the module. Exercises 12.17 through 12.21 are good
choices.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
12-9
Appendix 12-C shows a checklist for writing direct request messages. Appendix 12-D shows a
checklist for problem-solving messages.
How can I apply what I’ve learned in this module? LO 12-8
Plan your activities, and answer the PAIBOC questions.
PAIBOC can help students to create solutions. For more information on PAIBOC, review
Module 1 (PP 1-21 and PP 1-22 list the PAIBOC components).
In-Class Exercise: Have students form groups of 3-5. Let each group explain one of
the PAIBOC components and how it helps with the analysis of the problem.
Last Word: Persuasive messages are common in business communication. Help
students to understand the concepts by working through problems and exercises at the
end of the module. In particular, show students how their choices of types of
persuasive messages can enhance the likelihood of success.
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
12-10

Subscribe Now

Sign up to view full document

View Document