Type
Solution Manual
Book Title
Business Communication: Building Critical Skills 6th Edition
ISBN 13
978-0073403267

978-0073403267 Chapter 1 Lecture Points, Teaching Tips, and In-Class Exercises

April 6, 2019
Module 01 - Business Communication, Management, and Success
Module 1
Business Communication, Management, and Success
LO 1-1 Recognize myths about on-the-job writing.
LO 1-2 Distinguish business communication from other school writing.
LO 1-3 Explain accomplishments through communication.
LO 1-4 Understand costs for business communication.
LO 1-5 Define criteria for effective messages.
LO 1-6 Apply strategies for communication analysis.
LO 1-7 Apply strategies for creative thinking.
Module Overview
Module 1 introduces students to the importance of writing in the workplace, dispelling myths
about who writes and how. It also emphasizes that we live in a
period of great change, especially as globalization continues to
reshape the business world.
Students can easily overlook the importance of writing to their
careers—even people who are already in the workforce. In fact, a
major complaint of many employers is that their prospective and
current employees have poor or underdeveloped communication
skills. Therefore, Kitty and Steve believe it’s vital to share with
students early the realities of how important good communication
skills are to the workplace.
As shown on PP 1-6 through 1-8, employers clearly want
employees who communicate well, yet a staggering 40 million
people in the U.S. alone have limited literacy skills, including some
college graduates. According to a report by the College Board’s
National Commission on Writing, states spend more than $220
million annually on remedial writing training for their employees,
and corporations may spend $3.1 billion to fix problems from
writing deficiencies. Globalization is changing where they are
finding employees, millions of Americans are preparing to retire,
and millions more will replace them—some with very different
expectations for the workplace.
1-1
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Module 01 - Business Communication, Management, and Success
Teaching Tip: Many students are aware of a communication problem in the
workplace that may have cost an organization time or money or both. Ask them
to share stories about such problems, as well as how the organization
compensated for the problems. Use PP 1-6 through 1-8 to show the larger
picture.
Students may confuse the difference between verbal communication
(which uses words) and nonverbal communication (which doesn’t).
The fundamentals are on PP 1-4 and 1-5. The key point here is that
we use a combination of verbal and nonverbal communication every
day, on the job and otherwise. However, verbal and nonverbal
techniques may differ not only from each other, but also from culture
to culture, as expressed in Module 3.
As with all modules, Kitty and Steve recommend that you read
Module 1 thoroughly before reviewing the discussion that follows.
What’s in This Supplement
This supplement is organized around the major questions posed in Module 1. It covers
Part 1: Key Lecture Points, Teaching Tips, and In-Class Exercises Page 2
Part 2: Answers to Textbook Assignments Page 14
Part 3: Appendixes of Handouts/Transparency Masters Page 18
PowerPoint presentations can be found at our Web page at www.mhhe.com/bcs6e.
Questions (with answers) suitable for quizzes and examinations are in the Instructors Test
Bank. For student practice quizzes with answers, see our Web page.
Part 1: Key Lecture Points, Teaching Tips, and In-Class Exercises
1-2
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Module 01 - Business Communication, Management, and Success
Will I really have to write? LO 1-1
Yes. A lot.
Myths abound about writing on the job. Help students understand
why learning business communication is important by addressing
four common but generally flawed claims (outlined on PP 1-9 and
1-10):
Claim 1: Secretaries will do all my writing.
Reality: Because of automation and restructuring, secretaries and
administrative assistants are likely to handle complex tasks such as
training, research, and database management for several managers.
Managers are likely to take care of their own writing, data entry, and
phone calls.
Teaching Tip: Ask students who are secretaries or
administrative assistants to share their experiences on this matter—how many of
them do all of the writing for their bosses? Do any write for others in the
organization? How much? How does this compare to the amount of writing others
appear to do?
Claim 2: I’ll use form letters or templates when I need to write.
Reality: Using a form letter is OK if it’s a good letter. But form letters cover only routine
situations. The higher you rise, the more frequently you’ll face situations that aren’t routine, that
demand creative solutions.
In-Class Exercise: Have students bring to class form letters—a credit card pitch, a
letter from a property owner, college correspondence, etc. —and critique them.
Spend 10-15 minutes discussing the strengths and weaknesses of select letters. Do
they “work”? Why or why not? How personal do they feel? Are the students
emotionally attached to the service or product after reading the letters? How would
this affect their decision to purchase?
Claim 3: I’m being hired as an accountant, not a writer.
Reality: Almost every entry-level professional or managerial job requires you to write e-mail
messages, speak to small groups, and write e-mail and paper documents. People who do these
things well are more likely to be promoted beyond the entry-level.
1-3
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Module 01 - Business Communication, Management, and Success
Teaching Tip: Have your students interview a friend or relative in the business
world about how much writing he or she does on the job. In particular, the student
should ask if the amount and type of writing is what that person expected to do. Tell
the student to make a list of documents and, if possible, writing examples. Have
students spend 10-15 minutes sharing their findings with the class.
Claim 4: I’ll just pick up the phone.
Reality: Important phone calls require follow-up letters, memos, or e-mail messages. People in
organizations put things in writing to make themselves visible, to create a record, to convey
complex data, to make things convenient for the reader, and so forth.
Teaching Tip: Have your students discuss what form of communication seems more
“lasting” to them—phone or written correspondence. Which would they prefer for
messages they consider important? Why?
Don’t I know enough about communication? LO 1-2
Business communication differs from other school writing.
Some students struggle to transition from what they’ve learned in previous writing courses,
usually composition courses, to business communication. And because it’s likely they’ve taken
several composition courses prior to business communication, they naturally want to apply
composition strategies to your course.
Concepts may seem at odds with one another, even contradictory. For instance, while they were
rewarded for broad, expressive writing in composition, business communication privileges
brevity and less formal language. Argumentation may be less important than objectivity,
precision, and completeness.
Students who apply other disciplines’ strategies indiscriminately often produce business
documents that are wordy, confrontational, inappropriate in tone, or incorrect in format. Help
them understand that all good writing shares some features—organization, detail, reason, and so
forth—but business communication has expectations that are unique.
Teaching Tip: Novice writers often ignore distinctions between different disciplines
of writing, such as journalism, composition, fiction, business communication, etc.
Draw an analogy between these and disparate disciplines of mathematics—algebra,
geometry, and calculus—or science—biology, physics, and chemistry. Explain that
just as arithmetic forms the foundation of mathematical disciplines, so does the
English language form the foundation of writing disciplines in the U.S. Differences
make each discipline distinct, however, as distinct as in mathematics and science.
1-4
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Module 01 - Business Communication, Management, and Success
Use PP 1-11 to illustrate the differences between school writing and business writing:
Purpose
Audience
Information
Organization
Style
Document Design
Visuals
In-Class Exercise: Tell students to bring copies of compositions they’ve written to
class. Have them spend 10-15 minutes analyzing them for purpose, audience,
information, and so forth. Could the composition be adapted to a business message?
What kind? How? What changes would have to be made? What qualities or
features of the composition would not work?
What does communication accomplish? LO 1-3
Management happens through communication.
Managers aren’t the only ones who manage communication. Every day, workers must find ways
to stay productive while juggling multiple tasks. Learning to manage communication is one way
to keep things running smoothly. Learning the basics of business communication is a start.
As shown on PP 1-12 through PP 1-15, there are two broad
categories of audience: internal and external. Internal audiences
are other people in the same organization: subordinates, superiors,
and peers. Figure 1.1 (p. 7) shows the internal audiences for a sales
company.
External audiences are people outside the organization: customers,
suppliers, unions, stockholders, potential employees, government
agencies, the press, and even the general public. Figure 1.2 (p. 7)
shows a corporation’s external audiences. (Module 2 provides a
more detailed breakdown of audience.)
Approaches to reaching these two audiences can be quite different—
e.g., because internal audiences usually are more familiar, written
correspondence may be more casual and in memo form.
1-5
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Module 01 - Business Communication, Management, and Success
In-Class Exercise: What do students perceive as the differences between internal
and external audiences? Have them brainstorm for 10-15 minutes as a group on how
these audiences are similar and how they are different. If students are writing to an
internal audience, what document qualities would they be concerned about? For an
external audience? In particular, ask students what would be similar or different
about the following qualities: formality of language; use of humor; format of
document (memo vs. letter); length; quality of paper, envelope (if any), and printing.
While memos, letters, and newsletters are more formalized ways of communicating in the
workplace, the grapevine is the informal channel many employees rely on for information.
Sometimes, employees will see the grapevine as more credible than “official” company organs,
especially during periods of poor labor relations.
Teaching Tip: Ask the students to share their experiences with a company or
organization grapevine. Did they believe it more than information on company
letterhead? Why or why not? How accurate was the grapevine? What effects did it
have on organization morale and behavior? If the effect was poor, why did people
privilege it?
As illustrated on PP 1-16, three basic purposes exist for writing in
the workplace: to inform, to request or persuade, and to build
goodwill.
How much does correspondence cost? LO 1-4
$21.15 a pageeven more if it doesn’t work.
Unlike the “bottom line” for manufacturing and sales, the cost of writing in the workplace often
seems incalculable or inconsequential to students. However, a consultant who surveyed
employees in seven industries found that to prepare a one-page letter, most of them spent 54
minutes planning, composing, and revising the letter. According to the most recent figures from
the U.S. Department of Labor, employers paid an average of $23.50 per hours per employee for
wages and benefits. At that rate, an employer would pay $21.15 for an employee’s time spent
writing a typical letter.
Help students understand that the true cost of poor communication generally isn’t measured in
dollars and cents, but in the failure of the message to achieve its goals. Loss of credibility,
failure to secure a job interview or get a promotion, a poor image of the organization,
miscommunicated messages, and unresolved problems can result. Of course, ineffective
communication can also translate into lost revenue.
1-6
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Module 01 - Business Communication, Management, and Success
Document cycling adds to the cost, as the same message might circulate back and forth among
many people until the final version is produced. Researcher Geoffrey Cross found, for instance,
that a one-page letter of transmittal for an insurance company annual report took 77 days to write
because of document cycling. In the meantime, the dollar clock is ticking.
Teaching Tip: College course paper revisions are forms of document cycling
between teacher and student that most students appreciate. Here students can learn
while improving grades. Yet, there is also a cost: time. Ask students to analyze how
much time they have spent re-writing a typical graded paper (not revising a paper
before submission, a different task). Would they like to spend less? If so, what steps
could they take to reduce the amount of time spent re-writing while improving the
quality of their papers? How might they apply these steps to business documents?
(You can tie this into PAIBOC, described below—how could students better analyze
the writing problem before they start composing?)
Bad writing wastes time by
Taking more time to read.
Requiring more time to revise and causing more rounds of revision.
Confusing ideas so that discussions and decisions are needlessly drawn out.
Delaying action while the reader asks for more information or tries to figure out the
meaning.
What makes a message effective? LO 1-5
Good messages meet five criteria.
Good business and administrative writing (illustrated on PP 1-19)
Is clear.
Is complete.
Is correct.
Saves the readers time.
Builds goodwill.
Students should understand that while these are not the only qualities of good business writing,
these five criteria form the foundation of all business messages.
For more information on building goodwill, see Unit Two.
1-7
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Module 01 - Business Communication, Management, and Success
In-Class Exercise: Tell students to bring copies of correspondence they’ve received
that do not meet any or all of these five criteria. Have the students break into groups
and spend 10-15 minutes identifying the problems with one of their group’s
messages. What’s wrong with the message’s clarity or completeness? If the
message did not save time, what went wrong? How did they feel about errors?
What was the overall impression of the individual or organization that sent the
message? Have the students spend another 10-15 minutes rewriting the portions
they feel are problematic.
How should I analyze business communication situations? LO 1-6
Try PAIBOC.
PAIBOC, as illustrated on PP 1-21 and PP 1-22, helps students to
analyze business communication situations:
P Purpose
A Audience
Teaching Tip: Audience is covered in more detail in
Module 2. Students should understand that the
audience-centered approach to communication will help
them create better documents.
I Information
B Benefits
Teaching Tip: Reader benefits is a concept covered in more detail in Module 8. For
now, help students to understand that in any business transaction, the parties
involved look for benefits. Mutual benefits are points of agreement or compromise.
To help students understand the concept, brainstorm with them the benefits of taking
a business communication course. Encourage them to look beyond simple tangible
results—e.g., learning to write specific documents—and also consider less tangible
ones—e.g., confidence in business communication situations.
O Objections
1-8
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Module 01 - Business Communication, Management, and Success
Teaching Tip: Many objections can be overcome—offering an attractive interest
rate or a product in a popular color—but others may be impossible—stocking
unusual sizes or approving a credit line far beyond what an applicant is qualified for.
Remind students to stay within reason when considering both objections and how to
overcome them.
C Context
For messages throughout this text and throughout their careers, students should use PAIBOC
before composing messages. The solutions they create for business communication problems
must solve both the organizational problem and meet the needs of the writer or speaker, the
organization, and the audience.
Thinking Creatively LO 1-7
The key to thinking creatively is to think “out of the box,” that is, to shed common paradigms
and instead look for innovative ways to approach problem solving. Creativity is essential in
business and business communication.
A good example of being creative is the producers of Adult Swim, the television program block
on the Cartoon Network. Instead of using standard marketing practice that likely would have
resulted in yet another tired version of the same kind of programming available elsewhere, the
producers instead asked themselves what they wanted to watch—and why wasn’t it on TV
already? The result was a ratings success for a network with comparatively smaller resources.
Some companies have procedures for employees to be more
creative, some of which are described on PP 1-24. For instance,
IBM suggests:
Have a constructive argument.
Brainstorm with someone 10 years older and someone
10 years younger.
Clean your desk.
Come in early—enjoy the quiet.
Leave the office. Sit with just a pencil and a pad of paper. See what happens.
1-9
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Module 01 - Business Communication, Management, and Success
Teaching Tip: Many students don’t think about themselves as being creative
because they compare themselves to well-known figures, such as artists, musicians,
inventors, and entrepreneurs. But signs of students’ creativity can be found
immediately, in everything from hobbies to choice of dress to doodling on their
notebooks. Help students to see their own creativity by examining their choices and
how the choices define them as individuals.
In-Class Exercise: Teaching someone to be creative is a difficult, if not impossible,
task. It’s better to give students the opportunity to apply creative skills and learn
through the experience. One exercise that works especially well for kinesthetic
learners is to give groups of 3-5 students each a variety of common objects found
around the office: a paper towel tube, sheets of copy bond, markers, pushpins, and
the like. Then give them 10 minutes to come up with something that represents how
the group, the college, or a popular celebrity or product.
Last Word: By the end of this module, students should understand the importance
of communication in the workplace. Help them to see that good communication
skills are needed beyond the classroom and can help them get the jobs, promotions,
and careers they want. But first they must see good communication as an integral
part of everything they do in business.
1-10
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

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