Book Title
M: Business Communication 3rd Edition

978-0073403229 Chapter 10 Text Summary, Lecture Outline Part 2

April 5, 2019
Making Formal Speeches
Slide 10-17
Most business people can overcome their discomforts with formal speeches if they desire to improve
and master speaking techniques. This overview slide introduces the basics of public speaking.
Slide 10-18
The formal speech begins with a topic.
In some cases, you will be assigned a topic:
because of your expertise
by the nature of the assignment (example: welcoming a group)
In other cases, you will need to select your topic. Three factors should guide you:
Background and knowledge—select a topic you know and are comfortable with.
Interests of audience—choose a topic your audience can understand and appreciate.
Occasion of speech—make sure the topic fits the speech situation.
The medium you'll be using—consider the differences between a live, online or video presentation.
Slide 10-19
Planning for informal oral reports is just as important and involved as planning for written reports.
Determine your objective.
State the oral report purpose clearly and concisely.
Determine the factors you will discuss in order to provide the beginning framework for the oral report.
Organizing content well is key to delivering an effective oral report.
Select either the direct or indirect order. Usually, oral reports use indirect order. Introductory comments
are needed to prepare listeners to become interested in the message and to be prepared to receive it. Time
pressure, though, may force the direct order in oral reports.
Introductions in oral reports do all of the things in oral reports that they do in written ones.
Parts of the body of an oral report are comparably divided. Coherence is also a major consideration in
The most significant difference in written and oral reports is in the ending. The oral report is likely to
have a final summary after any ending summary/conclusion/recommendation.
The final summary is similar to an executive summary. It recaps the total report in miniature.
Finally, plan time for interaction and anticipate the kind of questions the audience might ask so you have
answers prepared.
Making Formal Speeches: Introduction
Slides 10-20, 10-21, 10-22
The introduction has two goals:
1. To prepare listeners to receive the message
2. To gain attention
Consider using the following techniques to arouse interest:
1. Human interest stories
2. Humor
3. Questions/quotations
4. Startling statements with facts/ideas
After arousing interest, the opening should give the theme of the speech. Generally, do not give the theme
if your purpose is to persuade and your audience will require much persuasion, as you will want to give
the theme later in this instance—use the indirect approach.
Making Formal Speeches: Body & Conclusion
Slide 10-23
Body: More than likely, you will use factors (points) to divide the body into comparable parts. The factors
will be issues/questions of subtopics: Time, place, quantity, and combinations of them are possibilities for
organizing. Provide transitions among divisions as well.
Slides 10-24, 10-25
Conclusion: End the speech with a conclusion, a statement of the speech’s goal achievement.
Consider three elements in the close:
1. Retatement of subject
2. Summary of key points
3. Statement of conclusion
Present the conclusion forcefully—in word and in intent—so that it will be remembered.
Slide 10-26
TED Talks are a great introduction to great speaking. These slides introduce them and discuss Nancy
Duarte’s “The Secret Structure of Great Talks.” We recommend showing this speech to your class before
or after you discuss the components of a presentation. You can find it at TED.com.
Slide 10-27
After organizing the speech, you then attend to its presentation. You have three choices.
1. Extemporaneous presentations are the most popular and effective of the three choices. Prepare
notes from the organized speech and present from them. Rehearse, but do not memorize.
Extemporaneous presentations sound natural but are the result of much planning and practice.
2. Memorizing is the most difficult method. Most people panic or get confused when they forget a
word or two from a memorized speech. Most speakers compromise—they use notes and
memorize key passages.
3. Reading a speech can be effective if you practice. Record your speech and critique it. This should
tell you what you need to improve. Some audiences dislike speeches that are read. When you read
a speech, make sure you have practiced and your audience accepts this presentation method.
Slide 10-28
Traditionally, formal speeches have been one-way communication. Today’s audiences are likely to expect
more two-way communication, even during the talk.
Keep participants involved through polls, questions, and live chat.
Incorporate audience participation to break up the speech and keep attention high.
Encourage participants to email questions.
Consider online evaluations.
Slide 10-29
Spoken words need visual support because sound is so impermanent and fleeting. Visuals help retention
of spoken words. Visuals in a presentation should be determined by the content of the presentation, the
cost, audience size, ease of preparation, and the facilities and technology available in the room where the
presentation is delivered. Though visuals should look nice, they are functional, not decorative.
Select visuals after the message is complete.
Search the message for
1. Vague or confusing parts
2. Complex parts
3. Parts in need of interest and emphasis
Select visuals to help these parts. Then determine the format. Select a visual because it communicates—
not because it is attractive or dramatic. When you are giving your presentation, be sure that you and your
audience reference visuals together. Point to the visuals as you talk to the audience. Be sure your audience
can see the visuals, and above all, be sure you talk to your audience, not to the visual. Doing so definitely
takes some skill, but this skill is cultivated with practice over time. Each type has strengths, depending on
the data involved and the purpose.
Slide 10-30
Follow this list of dos and don’ts to use visuals effectively.
1. Make certain that everyone in the audience can see the visuals. Too many or too-light lines on a
chart, for example, can be hard to see. An illustration that is too small can be meaningless to
people far from the speaker.
2. Explain the visual if there is any likelihood that it will be misunderstood.
3. Organize the visuals as a part of the presentation. Fit them into the presentation plan.
4. Emphasize the visuals. Point to them with physical action and words.
5. Talk to the audience—not to the visuals. Look at the visuals only when the audience should look
at them.
6. Avoid blocking the listeners’ view of the visuals. Make certain that the listeners’ views are not
blocked by lecterns, pillars, chairs, and such. Take care not to stand in anyone’s line of vision.
Use of Presentation Software
Slides 10-31, 10-32, 10-33
No matter what presentation software students use, they should follow these guidelines for designing
Avoid putting too much content on one slide. This is a common error. Remember that your talk, not your
slides, should convey most of your information.
Avoid making content too small. Depending on the size of the venue, audiences will be reading
content from a few to several feet away. For this reason, keep content to 30-point for headings,
24-point for text (at least).
Use a theme and color combination that aren't inappropriate and distracting. Students often want
to choose elaborate and flashy designs for their slides. But many templates are too busy for most
presentation purposes.
Avoid too much animation.
Be consistent. All slides should be formatted similarly and look like they belong in the same
Don’t read verbatim what’s on the slides. The majority of the content should be in the delivery.
Delivering Web Presentations
Slides 10-34, 10-35, 10-36
Live Web presentations—commonly called webinars or Web events—have become a popular genre of
business communication. They eliminate travel expenses and they can reach huge audiences.
They also require some unique planning and delivery techniques.
Before the presentation, the presenter will want to send out announcements encouraging users to pretest
their systems for the technology. He or she may also want to line up an assistant to help respond in real
time to questions that come in through chat boxes. Also, arranging for a technical person to be on hand to
troubleshoot is a good idea for some presenters.
Also, before the presentation, the presenter may want to show a slideshow for early arrivers that tells
where an archived version of the presentation will be available or that gives other announcements and
During the presentation, a speaker might do some polling. Some software allows for informal polling
where the audience can indicate a yes, no, or no sure response. Or a more formal polling tool that can be
prepared ahead of time or on the fly for more complex responses.
In addition, the presenter typically uses the highlighter and pen tools where a face-to-face presenter might
point to certain items.
A Web presenter also needs to pay close attention to time since some systems will shut down at the end of
a pre-determined timeframe.
Similar to the face-to-face presentation, the presenter of the Web presentation should plan for a question
and answer session as well as for an evaluation of the effectiveness of the presentation. And like the
face-to-face presentation, practicing is a must.
Team (Collaborative) Presentations
Slide 10-37
Team/group presentations require additional skills.
Extra planning is needed for:
1. Presentation order—member content, time use, and possible order
2. Supporting examples—for building continuity
3. Physical aspects—coordinate the type of delivery, notes, dress, visuals
4. Transitions between speakers
5. Physical staging—where to sit, stand, go; how to use visuals and microphones, etc.
6. Closing comments—who will close, what will be said, nature of question/answer if scheduled,
7. Rehearsals
Attention to these points will result in an effective team presentation.
Slide 10-38
This Herman Hesse quote appropriately captures the power of public speaking: “Everything becomes a
little different as soon as it is spoken out loud.” It ends the lecture well.