Book Title
M: Business Communication 3rd Edition

978-0073403229 Chapter 10 Text Summary, Lecture Outline Part 1

April 5, 2019
Teaching Suggestions
Teaching oral communication is best done through application exercises and problems. Even so, probably
you will want to review the techniques for each type presented in the text first. As you will note, many
kinds of oral communication exist. We believe our coverage of them follows a natural evolution—from
informal-talking and various one-to-one and one-to-many applications to listening and nonverbal
We suggest that your review of techniques be a summary of text content. The slides provided for the
lecture notes can help with this review. Also, you can supplement your review with discussion, using the
critical thinking questions at the end of the chapter.
Because our students learn best by doing, we suggest you assign critical thinking exercises. As these
problems consume class time, you will likely need to be selective. You simply cannot cover all the oral
communication forms discussed in this chapter unless it is the primary focus of your course. Also, we
have used videos with good success—especially with interviewing and meetings. In addition, video
recording should be used whenever possible for its feedback opportunities.
In our classes, we emphasize oral presentations. As our classes are rather large, we limit presentation time
to five minutes. Allowing some time for comment between presentations, we can handle about seven
during a 50-minute class. Much the same approach can be taken with formal speeches.
Lately one of us has been using virtual presentations since students have already completed a basic speech
course. It not only gives them more to offer an employer but it also gives them confidence that they can
handle this type of technology in the workplace.
The following page is an evaluation form we have used. One of us combines its use with a rubric her
college is using for assessment purposes. The rubric describes more fully what level of skill constitutes
various numbers ranges for each category. Today’s students are generally appreciative to see these before
they present.
Oral Presentaon Evaluaon
Topic Date
Four aspects of an oral presentation are listed below. Under each of these headings are descriptions.
Circle aspects that are excellent; underline aspects that need improvement; do nothing with aspects that
are average; cross out aspects that are not applicable. Comment on aspects that are circled or
underlined; circle the appropriate rating for each aspect.
Introduction 10 9
Body 8 7
Conclusion 6 5
Explicit facts and Interpretations 4 3
Preparation 2 1
Use of notes LOW
Time limit Thoroughness
Appearance 10 9
Eye contact 8 7
Gestures 6 5
Posture 4 3
2 1
VOICE Comments: HIGH
Voice volume 10 9
Voice variety 8 7
E7ective pauses 6 5
Rate of speech 4 3
Enthusiasm 2 1
Grammar LOW
Contribution to presentation 10 9
Neatness 8 7
Visibility 6 5
Clarity 4 3
Correctness 2 1
Text Summary, Lecture Outline
Slides 10-1, 10-2, 10-3
This chapter covers oral communication: informal talking, listening, phone and voice mail techniques,
conducting and participating in meetings, formal presentations with visuals (individual and teams), and
Web presentations.
Conversing Informally
Slide 10-4
Most do a good job at informal talking.
All can do better if we want to improve and know talking’s nature and qualities.
Definition of Talking
Talking is the oral expression of knowledge, viewpoints, and emotions through words.
Talking exists as a way for people to communicate more exactly. Without it, they would be forced to use
grunts, groans, and gestures to communicate.
It is important to study and to improve our informal talking skills.
Elements of Good Talking
Voice quality, talking style, word choice, and adaptation control good talking.
Slide 10-5
Voice Quality
Good voice quality means
varying pitch
changing delivery speed
alternating volume
To correct unpleasant voice quality involves
practice (pronounce words carefully, use range of voice, vary volume)
Improving voice quality gives more alternatives for oral expression—more ways to convey meaning.
Slide 10-6
Talking Style
Talking style means how voice quality fits with personality in oral expression.
Style of talking (how) should not overshadow content (what).
Slide 10-7
Word Choice
Choosing the right word(s) allows better communication—and quicker.
Chapter 4 covered suggestions for word choice in writing. These suggestions are equally important in
speaking, particularly with the shorter time cycle involved.
Slide 10-8
As in writing, adaptation is important in talking.
So be careful to use words the listener understands.
And the words should be delivered with the right pitch, speed, volume, and style.
Slide 10-9
Courtesy in Talking
Don’t dominate or drown out.
Don’t be silent either. Be heard, but be courteous.
Practice the Golden Rule.
Slide 10-10
You need to analyze yourself as a speaker before presenting your speech. What an audience sees is a part
of the message received. Sharpen your strengths through awareness and mastery of the following points.
Confidence: Develop confidence in yourself and from your audience by preparing earnestly, practicing,
dressing appropriately, and speaking in strong, clear tones.
Competence: Audiences expect speakers to know their subject matter. Doing your homework is critical.
Sincerity: Avoid any type of insincerity; be sincere throughout your speech. You cannot expect an
audience to be committed to your topic if you are not. Audiences are quite perceptive when it comes to
gauging a speakers sincerity and authenticity.
Thoroughness: Exacting coverage shows you care about your speech. It also shows credibility, but do not
overdo. Excessive detail can drown an audience in a sea of facts. Use good judgment to balance speech.
Friendliness: Friendliness allows the audience to identify with you and be receptive. Be sincere in your
friendliness; do not feign it. Through self-analysis, you can learn to project a genuine and friendly image.
Slide 10-11
Listeners see you and your surroundings as they receive your message. They perceive more than just your
The Communication Environment: This refers to the physical setting of your speech—the stage, lighting,
etc.— that is part of what your audience sees. This setting, including outside noises, should help—not
hinder—your presentation.
Personal Appearance: Dress appropriately for the audience and the occasion. Your personal appearance is
a part of the message. Also use facial expressions and physical movements to your advantage.
Posture: Posture is usually the most obvious point your audience observes. Practice good posture by
having others tell you areas of improvement or by using videotape. Distribute weight evenly in your
stance, stand erect and comfortable without appearing stiff or limp—maintain your posture naturally. Do
not appear artificial.
Walking: A strong, sure walk to your position of speaking portrays confidence. Walk during speech only
to create the effect you want.
Facial Expressions: Facial expressions are the most apparent of physical movements. Most of us
unconsciously convey unintended meanings through them. Eye contact, used with discretion, shows
interest. Use eye contact and facial expressions effectively.
Gestures: Gestures add meaning to messages, but their meanings are vague. Use them as natural, strong
supplements to speeches.
Slide 10-12
It is the receiving end of communication.
It causes more problems than the sending end.
The listening process involves
Our detection of sounds and
Our attentiveness (mental concentration)
Giving meaning to what we sense.
We remember many of the comments we hear in casual conversation for only a short time—a few
minutes or hours. We even quickly forget most of the message in formal oral communications
(such as speeches), remembering only a fourth of the information after two days.
Slide 10-13
Improving our listening
First, you must really want to improve. Determination is necessary.
Then you must work to pay attention—discipline yourself.
You must work to improve the accuracy of your filtering.
This requires looking for likely intended meanings
Keeping an open mind
You must work to remember—consciously
Slide 10-14
Oral communication skills are valuable in both conducting and participating in meetings.
Techniques of Conducting Meetings
Parliamentary procedure is used for most formal meetings.
Less formal techniques also can be used to accomplish a meeting purpose.
Plan the meeting—develop an agenda and organize it logically.
Follow the plan—keep discussion on track; take up new items that may arise at end of meeting.
Move the discussion along—do whatever is necessary to keep discussion on subject. Use judgment to
balance needed discussion with needless/useless comment.
Control those who talk too much—tactfully lead to others or summarize when some tend to dominate.
Encourage participation from those who talk too little—draw out those who might be reluctant to talk by
asking them for comments and showing respect for them.
Control time—announce time goals at beginning of meeting and remind group about them during it;
determine time allocations in planning meeting.
Summarize at appropriate places—formally conclude each point on agenda; then proceed to the next
Summarize at the end of meeting and throughout meeting whenever needed.
Slide 10-15
Techniques for Participating in a Meeting
Follow the Agenda—do not discuss items not on agenda or comment on such items if raised by others.
Participate—give meaningful input to the meeting; talk only and whenever you have something to
Do Not Talk Too Much—respect the rights of others to contribute; but speak whenever you believe you
have meaningful contributions.
Cooperate—respect the leader and other participants; work with them to accomplish goals.
Be courteous—respect rights/opinions of others.
Slide 10-16
Perhaps a trivial matter.
But some of us are bad at it.
Bad voice quality
Discourteous (unintentional)
We can work on our voices and use effective practices with voice mail.
Work to make your voice sound pleasant and friendly.
Talk as if you're face-to-face. Even try smiling.
Introduce yourself right away and politely ask to speak to the person you are calling.
To effectively call:
Plan the call, using notes if necessary
Explain the purpose of the call
Cover points systematically
Close with goodwill comments