dressing appropriately, and speaking in strong, clear tones.
Competence: Audiences expect speakers to know their subject matter. Doing your homework is critical.
Sincerity: Avoid any type of insincerity; be sincere throughout your speech. You cannot expect an
audience to be committed to your topic if you are not. Audiences are quite perceptive when it comes to
gauging a speaker’s sincerity and authenticity.
Thoroughness: Exacting coverage shows you care about your speech. It also shows credibility, but do not
overdo. Excessive detail can drown an audience in a sea of facts. Use good judgment to balance speech.
Friendliness: Friendliness allows the audience to identify with you and be receptive. Be sincere in your
friendliness; do not feign it. Through self-analysis, you can learn to project a genuine and friendly image.
Listeners see you and your surroundings as they receive your message. They perceive more than just your
The Communication Environment: This refers to the physical setting of your speech—the stage, lighting,
etc.— that is part of what your audience sees. This setting, including outside noises, should help—not
Personal Appearance: Dress appropriately for the audience and the occasion. Your personal appearance is
a part of the message. Also use facial expressions and physical movements to your advantage.
Posture: Posture is usually the most obvious point your audience observes. Practice good posture by
having others tell you areas of improvement or by using videotape. Distribute weight evenly in your
stance, stand erect and comfortable without appearing stiff or limp—maintain your posture naturally. Do
not appear artificial.
Walking: A strong, sure walk to your position of speaking portrays confidence. Walk during speech only
to create the effect you want.
Facial Expressions: Facial expressions are the most apparent of physical movements. Most of us
unconsciously convey unintended meanings through them. Eye contact, used with discretion, shows
interest. Use eye contact and facial expressions effectively.
Gestures: Gestures add meaning to messages, but their meanings are vague. Use them as natural, strong
supplements to speeches.
It is the receiving end of communication.
It causes more problems than the sending end.
The listening process involves