Book Title
Business Driven Information Systems 5th Edition

978-0073402987 Chapter 9 Section 9.1 Developing Enterprise Applications

April 4, 2019
systems development and
project management
Organizations must learn how to build and implement systems to remain
competitive. Software that is built correctly can support agile organizations
and can transform as the organization and its business transforms. Software
that effectively meets employee needs will help an organization become
more productive and enhance decision making. Software that does not meet
employee needs may have a damaging effect on productivity and can even
cause a business to fail. Employee involvement along with using the right
implementation methodology when developing software is critical to the
success of an organization.
The Systems Development Life Cycle
Software Development Methodology: Waterfall
Agile Software Development Methodologies
Service-Oriented Architectures
Using Project Management to Deliver Successful Projects
The Elements of Project Planning
Primary Project Planning Diagrams
Outsourcing Projects
Organizations must learn how to build and implement disruptive
technologies, such as software for wireless devices, to remain competitive.
Software that is built correctly can support agile organizations and can
transform as the organization and its business transforms. Software that
effectively meets employee needs will help an organization become more
productive and enhance decision making. Software that does not meet
employee needs may have a damaging effect on productivity and can even
cause a business to fail.
Learning Outcome 9.1: Describe the seven phases of the systems
development life cycle.
The seven phases in the SDLC include:
Planning phase – involves establishing a high-level plan of the intended
project and determining project goals
Analysis phase – involves analyzing end-user business requirements
and re/ning project goals into defined functions and operations of the
intended system
Design phase – involves describing the desired features and operations
of the system including screen layouts, business rules, process
diagrams, pseudo code, and other documentation
Development phase – involves taking all of the detailed design
documents from the design phase and transforming them into the
actual system
Testing phase – involves bringing all the project pieces together into a
special testing environment to test for errors, bugs, and
interoperability and verify that the system meets all of the business
requirements defined in the analysis phase
Implementation phase – involves placing the system into production so
users can begin to perform actual business operations with the
Maintenance phase – involves performing changes, corrections,
additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet the
business goals
Learning Outcome 9.2 Summarize the different software
development methodologies.
There are a number of different software development methodologies
Agile methodology – aims for customer satisfaction through early and
continuous delivery of useful software components developed by an
iterative process with a design point that uses the bare minimum
Waterfall methodology – an activity-based process in which each phase
in the SDLC is performed sequentially from planning through
implementation and maintenance
Rapid application development methodology (RAD) – emphasizes
extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction
of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the systems
development process
Extreme programming (XP) methodology – breaks a project into tiny
phases, and developers cannot continue on to the next phase until the
first phase is complete
Rational Uni/ed Process (RUP) – provides a framework for breaking
down the development of software into four gates.
SCRUM – uses small teams to produce small pieces of deliverable
software using sprints, or 30-day intervals, to achieve an appointed
Learning Outcome LO 9.3 Explain why a company would
implement a service-oriented architecture.
Service oriented architecture (SOA) is a business-driven enterprise
architecture that supports integrating a business as linked, repeatable
activities, tasks, or services. SOA ensures that MIS systems can adapt
quickly, easily, and economically to support rapidly changing business
needs. SOA promotes a scalable and 7exible enterprise architecture that
can implement new or reuse existing MIS components, creating
connections among disparate applications and systems. It is important to
understand that SOA is not a concrete architecture; it is a way of thinking
that leads to a concrete architecture.
GREAT BUSINESS DECISIONS – Johnson & Johnson Decides
to Pull Tylenol from Store Shelves
In 1982, Johnson & Johnson exempli/ed ethics in its decision to pull Tylenol
from store shelves across the United States because a psychopath put
cyanide into some of the Tylenol capsules. Eight people died. In response,
Johnson & Johnson quickly pulled all Tylenol products from store shelves; a
total of 31 million bottles were returned to J&J costing the company over
$100 million. The company’s agility and ability to act quickly to the threat by
changing its processes and developing more secure products allowed the
company to remain as one of the best-selling over-the-counter drug
Organizations must be agile and ready for the unexpected. Tylenol had no
idea a vandal would go to such an extreme extent, but the company was
ready to move and quick to react to the situation. Perhaps if Tylenol had
anticipated such an event the company would have designed a tamper-proof
product in the beginning. It would have been cheaper than having to react to
the situation and the damage done to the brand.
If Programmers Made Planes
Excellent video: If Programmers Made Planes
The IT Dilemma
This is a great example of why systems development is so diDcult. Cut and
paste into your PowerPoint for a classroom example.
Space Needle Exercise
Break your students into groups and give them equal materials from a Tinker
Toy set, a Zome set, or a product of your choice. Give them each the
following instructions and observe the groups as they build their prototypes.
Congratulations!!!!!! Your firm has been hired by the Denver City Council to
compete for the contract to build six new downtown skyscrapers. For the
initial meeting with the City Council you are to build a prototype building.
The requirements for the building are below:
- Your company will receive $20,000 if the building reaches 3 yards
- Each piece used after 15 pieces will cost your company $1,000
- Your team has 20 minutes to complete the prototype
The company with the highest dollar value building will win the contract.
Good Luck!!
1. Start the activity by providing your students with the case text and one
box of Zome pieces. (If you do not have Zome you can use any other toy
such as Tinker Toys)
2. While the students are working on the activity, take notes on how each
team is progressing. For example, did some students jump right into
design without doing any analysis, are some students spending so much
time in analysis they will not have much time for design.
3. About 15 minutes into the activity – or whenever the students have their
structures almost complete announce the following: “There was one
requirement missing – no two sticks of the same color can be attached to
a white ball, you have ten more minutes to complete your activity”
4. Once the students have completed the activity, ask them to determine
the dollar value of their structure. The team with the highest dollar value
5. Debrief:
Discuss the SDLC phases and review the team’s progression during
each phase.
Ask the students how many of them really understood the
requirements before proceeding into design and build. Many projects
fail due to missing or inaccurate business requirements.
Did the students realize that they were set up for failure – they do not
have enough pieces to reach 3 yards and should not have moved past
the analysis phase?
Did the students understand the vague requirements – 3 yards
horizontally or vertically, what is considered a piece – just the white
balls or everything?
What happened when the scope changed?
How many students jumped right into the build phase without
performing analysis or design?
How many students spent so much time in analysis that they did not
have enough time to build and test their structure?
Open-Source on Company Time
This article offers an interesting dilemma - how do you handle employees
that want to develop open-source code to help with a business problem, and
then post it back to the community?
The Enterprise Committer: When Your Employee Develops Open-Source Code
on the Company Payroll
Project Management Idiots Guide Video
Monkey Project Management Video
New Coke Marketing Blunder- Video
Future of Marketing Global Change
The core chapter material is covered in detail in the PowerPoint slides. Each
slide contains detailed teaching notes including exercises, class activities,
questions, and examples. Please review the PowerPoint slides for detailed
notes on how to teach and enhance the core chapter material.