7. Apparently not! In hindsight, the firm may have underestimated costs and also underestimated the
extra demand from the lower price.
8. Financing possibly could have been arranged if the company had taken quick enough action.
Sometimes it becomes apparent that help is needed only when it is too late, again emphasizing the
need for planning.
9. All three were important, but the lack of cash or, more generally, financial resources ultimately
spelled doom. An inadequate cash resource is usually cited as the most common cause of small
10. Demanding cash up front, increasing prices, subcontracting production, and improving financial
resources via new owners or new sources of credit are some of the options. When orders exceed
capacity, price increases may be especially beneficial.
NOTE: All end of chapter problems were solved using a spreadsheet. Many problems require multiple
steps. Due to space and readability constraints, when these intermediate steps are included in this
solutions manual, rounding may appear to have occurred. However, the final answer for each problem is
found without rounding during any step in the problem.
1. It is important to remember that equity will not increase by the same percentage as the other assets.
If every other item on the income statement and balance sheet increases by 15 percent, the pro forma
income statement and balance sheet will look like this:
Pro forma income statement Pro forma balance sheet
Sales $ 26,450 Assets $ 18,170 Debt $ 5,980
Costs 19,205 Equity 12,190
Net income $ 7,245 Total $ 18,170 Total $ 18,170
In order for the balance sheet to balance, equity must be:
Equity = Total liabilities and equity – Debt
Equity increased by: