Book Title
Fundamentals of Corporate Finance Standard Edition 9th Edition

978-0073382395 Chapter 4 Concepts Review and Critical Thinking Questions

April 3, 2019
Answers to Concepts Review and Critical Thinking Questions
1. The reason is that, ultimately, sales are the driving force behind a business. A firm’s assets,
employees, and, in fact, just about every aspect of its operations and financing exist to directly or
2. Two assumptions of the sustainable growth formula are that the company does not want to sell new
equity, and that financial policy is fixed. If the company raises outside equity, or increases its debt-
3. The internal growth rate is greater than 15%, because at a 15% growth rate the negative EFN
indicates that there is excess internal financing. If the internal growth rate is greater than 15%, then
the sustainable growth rate is certainly greater than 15%, because there is additional debt financing
used in that case (assuming the firm is not 100% equity-financed). As the retention ratio is increased,
4. The sustainable growth rate is greater than 20%, because at a 20% growth rate the negative EFN
indicates that there is excess financing still available. If the firm is 100% equity financed, then the
sustainable and internal growth rates are equal and the internal growth rate would be greater than
20%. However, when the firm has some debt, the internal growth rate is always less than the
5. Presumably not, but, of course, if the product had been much less popular, then a similar fate would
have awaited due to lack of sales.
6. Since customers did not pay until shipment, receivables rose. The firm’s NWC, but not its cash,
increased. At the same time, costs were rising faster than cash revenues, so operating cash flow
7. Apparently not! In hindsight, the firm may have underestimated costs and also underestimated the
extra demand from the lower price.
8. Financing possibly could have been arranged if the company had taken quick enough action.
9. All three were important, but the lack of cash or, more generally, financial resources ultimately
10. Demanding cash up front, increasing prices, subcontracting production, and improving financial
NOTE: All end of chapter problems were solved using a spreadsheet. Many problems require multiple
steps. Due to space and readability constraints, when these intermediate steps are included in this
solutions manual, rounding may appear to have occurred. However, the final answer for each problem is
found without rounding during any step in the problem.
1. It is important to remember that equity will not increase by the same percentage as the other assets.
If every other item on the income statement and balance sheet increases by 15 percent, the pro forma
income statement and balance sheet will look like this:
Pro forma income statement Pro forma balance sheet
Sales $ 26,450 Assets $ 18,170 Debt $ 5,980
Costs 19,205 Equity 12,190
Net income $ 7,245 Total $ 18,170 Total $ 18,170
In order for the balance sheet to balance, equity must be: