SSCI 65254

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Archaeology: Theories-- Methods-- and Practice 6th Edition
Authors
Colin Renfrew
It is clear that a rigid and complex class system had evolved by the Early Formative
period in the Valley of Oaxaca.
The deductive-nomothetic form of explanation proceeds by formulating a hypothesis,
establishing by deduction what would follow if the hypothesis were true, and then
testing the hypothesis against fresh data.
In tree-ring analysis, the more water that is available to tree, the ___________ the
annual ring
a) thinner
b) harder
c) softer
d) wider
e) both a and b
The analysis of the vertical, time dimension of a series of archaeological layers that are
situated horizontally is a fundamental aspect of archaeological excavation. It is called
a) typology
b) classification
c) geographic information systems
d) provenance
e) stratigraphy
Pollen is a useful tool for archaeologists because
a) the pollen of each genus of plant is unique in size, shape, and surface features
b) pollen is not very durable and can reflect subtle changes in seasons and climate
c) pollen almost always is limited in distribution to the area of the plant that produced it
d) all of the above
e) only a and c
Although ancient historical chronologies are of substantial importance in archaeological
dating, archaeologists must bear in mind that king- or ruler-lists often remain a "floating
chronology." This term means that
a) the list is inaccurate because it is related to astronomical observations
b) the list is inaccurate because it is related to the seasons
c) the list is not linked to our calendar
d) the list is linked only to sediment deposits
e) it is impossible to tell if the list of dates are BC or AD
__________ is a term used to describe archaeological interpretations that are on the
fringe of the discipline, but that contain beliefs that are not malicious or specifically for
profit. An example of this is the modern Druid interpretation of Stonehenge
a) Other Archaeologies
b) Pseudoarchaeology
c) Antiarchaeology
d) Religious Archaeology
e) Ethnoarchaeology
It was once thought that Maya glyphs did not identify individuals but only calendrical
and astronomical events, until Tatiana Proskouriakoff published a paper in 1960 that
a) identified only one ruler
b) identified an individual, who remains unknown
c) identified rulers of specific dynasties
d) identified dynastic families, but not individuals
e) proved this theory to be correct
Palynologists study ____________ which, when found preserved in lake or bog
sediments, allows them to understand both ancient environments and to use them as a
method of ________________ dating
a) fossils, precise
b) pollen, relative
c) pollen, absolute
d) fossils, absolute
e) fauna, relative
The underlying premise of _____________ is that particular kinds of archaeological
sites tend to occur in the same kinds of place
a) imaginative models
b) predictive models
c) hypothetical models
d) raster models
e) futuristic models
Displacements in the plates that make up the earth's crust, often responsible for the
occurrence of raised beaches, are known as
a) tectonic movements
b) step trenching
c) sedimentary processes
d) loess deposition
e) paleomagnetic reversals
Status won through an individual's accomplishments (e.g., hunting, mediating disputes)
in their own lifetime is known as
a) ascribed status
b) achieved status
c) evolved status
d) chieftain status
e) ranked status
Diatoms are
a) the tiny male reproductive bodies of flowering plants
b) the minute particles of silica derived from the cells of plants
c) the outermost protective layer of the skin of leaves or blades of grass
d) fossilized unicellular algae
e) the fossilized cuticles of plants
The most traditional and most basic subsurface detection technique is the use of
a) probes
b) ground penetrating radar
c) x-ray technology
d) geochemical analysis
e) magnetic resistivity
The World Heritage List, which records archaeological and environmental sites that are
of world-wide interest, is administered by
a) NAGPRA
b) the US
c) UNESCO
d) ICROM
e) the SHPOs
Dietary studies have been revolutionized through analyses of human tooth enamel and
bone collagen based on
a) the different ratios of carbon isotopes 13C and 12C
b) the different ratios of nitrogen isotopes
c) concentration of strontium in bone
d) All of the above
e) Answers a and c only
__________ are major periods of glacial advance during the Ice Age
a) Interstadials
b) Interglacials
c) Glacials
d) Stadials
e) none of the above
Tephrachronology is based on the idea that the products of individual ____________
are significantly different and thus distinguishable from one another
a) tree ring growth years
b) volcanic eruptions
c) glacial retractions
d) pollen grains
e) DNA splitting events
The term _________ art designates art found on the walls of caves and rockshelters, or
on very large stone blocks
a) referential
b) parietal
c) mobiliary
d) iconic
e) vertical
After Aramaic Incantation Bowls were controversially returned to a private collector by
the University College London, a report commissioned by UCL to tell if the bowls has
been illegally exported from their country of origin was released via
a) the freedom of information act
b) the president of the university
c) wikileaks
d) the collector himself
e) the BBC
________ is a societal construct that involves a person's role in society; it cannot be
biologically determined
a) Sex
b) Gender
c) Age
d) Health
e) Genetics
In a study of the Maya center at Caracol, Belize, Diane and Arlen Chase identify four
different warfare-related events through their analysis of Maya
a) hieroglyphs
b) scrolls
c) graves
d) cuneiform tablets
e) building techniques
Although generally less precise than radiocarbon, thermoluminescence (TL) dating has
two advantages over radiocarbon dating. First, in principle, it can date materials beyond
50,000 years ago and second, it can date
a) teeth
b) pottery
c) volcanic rock
d) carbonized botanical remains
e) fossilized animal bone
The _________ are credited with introducing the technique of glass-blowing, in about
50 bc
a) Romans
b) Chinese
c) Mesopotamians
d) Incas
e) Mongols
The recovery and identification of plant remains from archaeological contexts to study
past human use of plants is known as
a) paleoplantology
b) archaeophytology
c) paleoethnobotany
d) archaeozoology
e) zooarchaeology
There are competing theories about the causes for ancient big-game extinctions (such as
the mastodon and horse in the Americas). One group believes that climatic change is the
primary cause behind these extinctions, although this does not explain why similar
changes in earlier times did not have the same effect. Competing theories argue that
a) the big-game migrated before land bridges disappeared
b) the arrival of people led to overexploitation and then extinction
c) human overexploitation led to the disappearance of megaherbivores, in turn leading
to extinction of medium-sized herbivores
d) Answer b and c are both correct
e) None of these answers are correct
An important method used to gain an understanding of a past society involves the study
of the present-day use and significance of artifacts, buildings, and structures, and the
way these things become incorporated into the archaeological record when they are
thrown away, torn down, or abandoned. Such an approach is known as
a) cataclysm studies
b) archaeozoology
c) archaeobotany
d) ethnoarchaeology
e) ethnology
As cognitive science develops it is increasingly clear that the notion of _______ goes
well beyond the notion of ________
a) mind; brain
b) symbol; brain
c) mind; symbol
d) cognitive map; symbol
e) mind; matter
A mode of exchange that implies a specific location for the transactions to occur and
allows or fosters the negotiation of price-making is known as
a) kula ring
b) potlatch
c) reciprocity
d) market exchange
e) moka
Before radioactive methods were developed after World War II, the two most accurate
means of absolute dating, ______ and ________, were limited to Scandinavia and the
American Southwest
a) potassium-argon, seriation
b) varves, seriation
c) tree rings, seriation
d) pollen, tree rings
e) varves, tree rings
Archaeologist Shinichi Fujimura, nicknamed "God's hands" for his ability to uncover
amazing artifacts, was revealed to have been _________ his finds
a) stealing
b) selling
c) borrowing
d) faking
e) destroying

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