Book Title
Essentials of American Government: Roots and Reform 2012 Election Edition 11th Edition

SSCI 41889

July 16, 2017
Appropriations committees help determine the programs that will be funded, while
authorizations committees determine the amount of monies to be distributed.
The vast majority of bills receive a subcommittee hearing, but not full passage.
During the same time period that legislators attempted to reform campaign finance, the
number of PACs grew at a rapid rate.
A president can influence policy by issuing a signing statement to comment on a signed
bill, claiming that part of the bill is unconstitutional.
Media coverage has a stronger effect on independent voters than on partisans.
The New Jersey Plan proposed a one-house legislature with one vote for each state.
Article III of the Constitution permits Congress to establish lower national courts.
Refer to Figure 7.1. Historically, presidents begin their terms of office with higher
approval ratings and tend to lose popularity over time.
Any power not specifically delegated to the states by the Constitution is reserved to the
national government.
As illustrated in the box entitled "The Composition of the Federal Workforce," the
federal workforce is split evenly between men and women.
Since the economic crisis that began in 2008, the national debt has declined.
The United States has always had a federal system of government.
The unique status that American Indian tribes have, as distinct governments whose
members also have U.S. citizenship, has ensured adequate protection of their members.
The federal stimulus package is generally referred to as TANF.
The Framers included a two-term limit to the presidency in the Constitution.
In Abington School District v. Schempp, the Court ruled that state-mandated Bible
readings were constitutional under the free exercise clause.
The Joint Chiefs of Staff serves as an advisor to the president on military policy.
The best way to influence the money supply is through fiscal policy.
Candidates rarely make appearances on comedy shows such as Saturday Night Live and
The Daily Show because the public does not take these outlets seriously.
The Supreme Court has found that the president has "inherent power" to halt the
publication of news.
The right to bear arms stems from colonists' distrust of standing armies.
Social Security is available to illegal immigrants.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is an example of a government
Consuming the slanted views of cable and Internet news sources has a neutral effect on
the way that citizens process political information.
After Gideon v.Wainwright, the Sixth Amendment has been interpreted to guarantee a
right to counsel to all criminal defendants, regardless of indigence.
Monarchy is a type of government that Aristotle considered rule by "tyranny."
Federal agencies are prohibited from engaging in adjudication, or quasi-judicial
The biggest reason cited by Americans for not voting is forgetfulness.
Article III specifies the powers of the Supreme Court.
If you were to run for president on the Republican ticket and followed the general trend,
you would likely accentuate your most conservative ideas in the primary and then
appear more moderate during the general election.
U.S. foreign policy toward China is largely driven by the fact that China is a large
market in an increasingly global economy.
Once a bill becomes law, lobbyists typically leave the implementation up to the
executive branch.
The Equal Pay Act of 1963 has nearly eliminated the wage gap between men and
women in the United States.
The Department of Defense has primary responsibility for intelligence and
Recent U.S. foreign policy under both Democratic and Republican presidents has
increased its focus on women's rights and empowerment.
In recent years, political action committees (PACs) have declined as vehicles for
campaign contributions.
Independent regulatory commissions differ from independent agencies in that they are
less subject to presidential control.
Which is a media effect?
a. agenda setting
b. campaign finance reform
c. governing templates
d. press background
e. selective perception
Which of the following public policies would social conservatives be most likely to
a. decreasing defense spending
b. prohibiting any references to God or religion on money or government buildings
c. providing governmental universal health care
d. overturning Roe v. Wade
e. regulating the banking and financial sectors
The doctrine of prior restraint prevents the government from prohibiting speech or
publication __________.
a. that is obscene
b. after the fact
c. that is illegal
d. that is critical of the government
e. before the fact
A polling firm has been commissioned by the New York Times to assess public opinion
about the performance of FEMA (the Federal Emergency Management Agency)during
the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. What should the firm do first?
a. determine the population
b. determine the content and phrasing of the questions they want answered
c. determine the method of poll selection
d. contact respondents
e. select the sample
How might a bill become law if it has been pocket vetoed?
a. Congress may override the pocket veto with a three-fourths vote in each chamber.
b. Congress may override the pocket veto with a two-thirds vote in each chamber.
c. The bill can never become law.
d. The bill must be reintroduced in the next session of Congress.
e. The president may sign the bill at his or her discretion.
Which of the following required all paper items in the colonies to carry a stamp of the
a. Crown Act
b. Paper Act
c. Stamp Act
d. Tax Act
e. Royal Act
The Framers adopted a federal system of government partly because they feared
a. centralizing power in one institution
b. decentralization by the states
c. limiting the national government
d. regulation of interstate commerce
e. to challenge the power of the states
Which of the following is an accurate statement about the "Don"t Ask, Don"t Tell"
a. Barack Obama initiated the policy as a goodwill gesture to the gay and lesbian
b. It prevented gays and lesbians from serving in the military.
c. It required gay and lesbian soldiers to keep quiet about their sexual orientation.
d. It prevented the military from discharging gay and lesbian soldiers.
e. It prohibited gay and heterosexual soldiers from discussing their sexual activity.
While the president has the authority to appoint and remove agency heads and other top
bureaucrats, Congress has the authority to __________.
a. initiate policies that would alter the bureaucracy's activities
b. make changes in an agency's annual budget proposals
c. reduce an agency's annual budget
d. refuse to appropriate funds for certain programs
e. reorganize the bureaucracy
Which law designates the steps that federal agencies must follow in issuing rules and
a. the Administrative Procedures Act
b. the Freedom of Information Act
c. the Hatch Act
d. the Pendleton Act
e. the Privacy Act
What is said of a successful presidential candidate who helps members of Congress get
elected as well?
a. The president has a mandate.
b. The president has long coattails.
c. The president has strong crossover.
d. The president is a ticket-splitter.
e. The president is front-loading.
Which of the following represents the federal government in the Supreme Court?
a. attorney general
b. president
c. Speaker of the House
d. solicitor general
e. chief prosecutor
In which institutional resource are leaders both appointed by the president and approved
by the Senate?
a. Executive Office of the President
b. White House staff
c. the Cabinet
d. Council of Economic Advisors
e. Federal Reserve
When can a party change its platform?
a. after a federal census
b. at the start of each fiscal year
c. during the national party convention
d. every two years
e. virtually anytime
What was the name of the legislation enacted in 2002 to assist states with upgrading
their voting equipment?
a. Help America Vote Act
b. Help Manage Elections Act
c. Help Prevent Recounts Act
d. Help States Vote Act
e. Help the People Vote Act
What was the main purpose for the March on Washington?
a. to urge Congress to adopt an antidiscrimination legislative agenda
b. to urge the Supreme Court to overturn the separate-but-equal doctrine
c. to urge John F. Kennedy to repudiate the actions of the freedom riders
d. to urge African Americans to reelect John F. Kennedy
e. to urge Congress to eliminate de facto segregation
Which of the following is an example of an independent executive agency?
a. the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
b. the Department of Health and Human Services
c. the Consumer Product Safety Commission
d. the Tennessee Valley Authority
e. the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
Media effects is the term used for changes in__________ due to the influence of news
a. public opinion
b. budgets
c. agenda setting
d. framing
e. decisions about newsworthiness
The true leader of the Senate is the __________, elected by the majority party.
a. majority leader
b. president pro tempore
c. Senate Chair
d. Speaker
e. vice president
Which of the following is the president most likely to consult with for advice about how
to best take advantage of the strengths of the various service branches when conducting
a military operation?
a. the Central Intelligence Agency
b. the director of National Intelligence
c. the secretary of Homeland Security
d. the secretary of state
e. the Joint Chiefs of Staff
The role of Senate minority leader is important because __________.
a. he or she represents the opposition in negotiations with the majority leader
b. he or she serves as chief assistant to the majority leader
c. he or she serves as the national spokesperson for the party
d. the House does not have this position
e. the Senate is more hierarchically driven than the House
How does the president exercise control over agencies and departments in the federal
a. by confirming federal appointees
b. by nominating federal appointees
c. by signing executive agreements
d. by creating or abolishing agencies
e. by conducting oversight hearings
Which of the following accurately describes the war in Iraq?
a. The U.S. administration's decision to become involved was noncontroversial.
b. The war lasted longer than the Bush administration expected.
c. Saddam Hussein launched the war through an attack on Iran.
d. The United States went to war as retribution for its involvement in the September 11,
2001, terrorist attacks.
e. The war received near universal praise from U.S. allies.
According to the Supreme Court's decisions in the Civil Rights Cases (1883), in which
of the following areas could Congress prohibit discrimination against African
a. theaters
b. hotels
c. railroads
d. private homes
e. driver's licenses
Executive deference to senators in the appointment of judges to federal courts is
a. appointee preeminence
b. committee referral
c. congressional review
d. reconciliation
e. senatorial courtesy
Which of the following expanded Americans' conceptions of personal liberty to include
some forms of freedom from discrimination?
a. Declaration of Independence
b. Fourteenth Amendment
c. Preamble to the Constitution
d. idea of majority rule
e. idea of equality
Article VI of the U.S. Constitution establishes that federal law is __________ in
conflicts between federal and state law.
a. irrelevant
b. persuasive authority
c. secondary
d. supreme
e. insignificant
What type of due process protects citizens from arbitrary or unjust state or federal laws?
a. procedural
b. constitutional
c. substantive
d. individual
e. prospective
Which of the following was the biggest contributor to the economic crisis that began in
a. deregulation of the investment banking industry
b. high levels of government spending
c. increased wage demands by labor unions
d. inflationary policies by the Federal Reserve
e. massive increases in federal budget deficits
Article IV of the Constitution requires Ohio to honor an adoption that took place in
You are a policy analyst in the Department of Energy. You were just offered a job with a
renewable energy company. How long must you wait before you can lobby the
Department of Energy on behalf of your new employer?
a. 6 months
b. 1 year
c. 2 years
d. 4 years
e. 5 years
How does the Preamble to the Constitution begin?
a. "We the People . . ."
b. "Four score and seven years ago . . ."
c. "When in the course of human events . . ."
d. "In order to form a more perfect Union . . ."
e. "These are the times that try men's souls . . ."
Which of the following is the doctrine that society should be governed by certain
ethical principles that are part of nature and can be understood by reason?
a. ethical law
b. contract law
c. natural law
d. Newton's law
e. constitutional law
When the U.S. Department of Transportation stipulates how many hours truck drivers
can be on the road per week, the department is creating a(n) __________.
In the United States, the __________ defines duties, obligations, and powers of both the
national and state governments.
What is the difference between budget deficits and the national debt?
Outline the main steps a bill takes to become a law, noting the differences between the
House and Senate. Why it is so much easier for a bill to be killed than passed?
Make an argument for interpreting the Fourteenth Amendment as supporting the right of
gays and lesbians to get married to their same-sex partners.
Why is Article III the shortest part of the Constitution?
What is the debt ceiling? How and why has it been reevaluated in recent years? What
has been decided?
Explain what selective incorporation is consistent with larger themes in federalism.
James Madison was the author of many of the essays known as the __________.
Which president began the modern presidency where the trend of presidential decision
making assumed greater importance than congressional? Explain how.
What portion of the federal government is responsible for monetary policy, and how
does it affect the economy?
Who is George Gallup, and what event launched his career in measuring public
Political knowledge and political participation have a(n) __________ effect on one
The __________ is the president's most loyal assistant who, at times, protects the
president from mistakes.
The __________ is used to resolve conflicts between the federal and state governments.
Consider this public opinion research question: "Would you support a single-payer
managed health care system if you knew your ability to choose your own physician
would be limited?" Is this question typical of a push poll?
The solicitor general handles all appeals on behalf of the __________ before the
Supreme Court.

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