SOC 89971

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Development Through The Lifespan 6th Edition
Authors
Laura E. Berk
__________ is a field devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to
the diversity in human traits and abilities.
A) Epigenesis
B) Behavioral genetics
C) Environmental genetics
D) Child development
Ineffective coping
A) is largely problem-centered.
B) reduces emotional distress.
C) is self-blaming, impulsive, or escapist.
D) attempts to balance problem- and emotion-centered strategies.
The best current evidencefrom the National Institute of Child Health and Development
Study of Early Child Careconfirms that
A) exposure to child care exerts a more powerful impact on children's adjustment than
parenting quality.
B) full-time, but not part-time, work during the first year is detrimental to attachment
security.
C) nonparental care by itself does not affect attachment quality.
D) having more than one child-care arrangement decreases the likelihood of attachment
insecurity.
Mark rates his personality as ambitious, competitive, affectionate, cheerful, and
soft-spoken. Mark's responses indicate a(n)
A) traditionally masculine gender identity.
B) traditionally feminine gender identity.
C) androgynous gender identity.
D) abnormal gender identity.
Lily weighed 8 pounds and was 21 inches long at birth. Which of the following
statements about her size is true?
A) She was heavier but shorter than the average baby.
B) She was heavier and longer than the average baby.
C) She was lighter but longer than the average baby.
D) She was lighter and shorter than the average baby.
Children in Western nations mention __________ as the most common source of their
fears.
A) exposure to fairy tales
B) direct exposure to frightening events
C) school or neighborhood bullies
D) exposure to negative information in the media
Which of the following statements about inclusion is true?
A) Inclusive classrooms enhance academic achievement for nearly all students with
special needs.
B) Children with special needs often do best when they receive instruction in a resource
room for part of the day and in the regular classroom for the remainder.
C) Most children with special needs function best when they receive all of their
instruction in a resource room.
D) Full inclusion is the most effective approach for educating children with special
needs.
In the first few years of life, the brain is
A) highly plastic.
B) less plastic than in middle childhood and adolescence.
C) more lateralized than at any other period.
D) unable to recover from injury.
Jonathan views himself as reaching great heights of omnipotence and also sinking to
unusual depths of despair. Which of the following cognitive distortions contribute to
Jonathan's views?
A) the personal fable
B) learned helplessness
C) the imaginary audience
D) metacognition
Research on friendships shows that
A) preschoolers interact in essentially the same ways with both friends and nonfriends.
B) preschoolers give more reinforcement to nonfriends than to friends.
C) most friendships during the preschool years are based on mutual trust.
D) the ease with which kindergarteners make new friends predicts behaviors linked to
gains in achievement.
When toddlers first learn words, they often apply them too narrowly, an error called
A) overextension.
B) underextension.
C) referential style.
D) telegraphic speech.
Regina eats a mostly vegetarian diet, but she eats a lot of fish. When she becomes
pregnant, what should Regina know about environmental pollution in fish?
A) Long-lived predatory fish, such as swordfish, albacore tuna, and shark, can be
heavily contaminated with mercury.
B) Fresh water fish, such as perch and trout, carry a startling array of industrial
contaminants287 in all.
C) While some fish are contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), steady,
low-level PCB exposure is not harmful.
D) Fish can be heavily contaminated with lead, exposure to which is related to
prematurity and brain damage.
Which of the following statements about the right to die in the United States is true?
A) The right to die was of greater concern before the 1950s because vaccinations had
not yet eradicated many terminal illnesses.
B) No uniform right-to-die policy exists.
C) The Quinlan and Schiavo cases created federal right-to-die legislation.
D) No U.S. states have laws that honor patients' wishes concerning withdrawal of
treatment in cases of a persistent vegetative state.
The earlier a woman reaches menopause, the __________ her chances of developing
__________.
A) smaller; osteoporosis
B) smaller; cardiovascular disease
C) greater; osteoporosis
D) greater; cardiovascular disease
Sam is an American sixth grader. Compared to his Asian agemates, when asked to
describe himself, Sam is more likely to say which of the following?
A) "I"m in sixth grade."
B) "I"m an older brother."
C) "I like hockey."
D) "My friends think I"m cool."
Which of the following statements about a home death is true?
A) It is usually less physically taxing on family members than a hospital death.
B) Families usually need a specially trained home health aide to provide support for the
caregiver.
C) Even when family relationships are conflict-ridden, dying at home is best.
D) Family members who experience a home death usually report less stress than those
who experience a hospital death.
Compared with men in China and Japan, American men place __________ emphasis on
their mate's __________.
A) more; domestic skills
B) less; intelligence
C) more; financial prospects
D) less; ambition
When Taylor was given a list of ingredients to memorize, she immediately repeated the
list to herself over and over. Which memory strategy did Taylor use?
A) elaboration
B) organization
C) rehearsal
D) metacognition
A major strength of the longitudinal design is that researchers can
A) examine relationships between early and later behaviors.
B) collect a large amount of data in a short time span.
C) explore similarities among children of different cohorts.
D) study participants differing in age at the same point in time.
Today, the percentage of U.S. young people completing high school by age 24 is just
over _____ percent.
A) 60
B) 70
C) 80
D) 90
A surprising aspect of brain growth is that
A) as synapses form, many surrounding neurons die.
B) the neural tube produces far fewer neurons than the brain will need.
C) less than 5 percent of neurons die.
D) neurons that are seldom stimulated never lose their synapses.
Charles Darwin's theory of evolution emphasized __________ and __________.
A) the normative approach; survival of the fittest
B) noble savages; physical maturation
C) tabula rasa; natural selection
D) natural selection; survival of the fittest
In a study involving weather predictions, media multitaskers
A) activated the hippocampus, which plays a vital role in explicit memory.
B) activated subcortical areas involved in implicit memory.
C) were able to apply their learning to new weather problems.
D) learned more thoroughly than participants working only on the weather task.
Compared with bereaved women, bereaved men
A) typically express distress more directly.
B) typically seek social support less readily.
C) have a lower mortality rate.
D) typically express depression more directly.
__________ is associated with high blood pressure and heart disease.
A) Displaying a socially submissive emotional style
B) Having an optimistic outlook
C) Ruminating about past anger-provoking events
D) Expressing frustration and disappointment
Bart and Nadia are gymnasts. Their son, 4-year-old Dylan, participates in children's
gymnastics. This is an example of
A) range of reaction.
B) an evocative correlation.
C) an active correlation.
D) a passive correlation.
People who are __________ are likely to have more severe death concerns.
A) in poor physical health
B) depressed
C) religious
D) childless
Truly moral individuals
A) do the right thing to avoid punishment.
B) conform to others' expectations.
C) have developed compassionate concerns and principles of good conduct.
D) do the right thing for the sake of social conformity.
Compared to U.S. babies, Dutch babies
A) are put to bed later.
B) sleep, on average, 2 hours less per day.
C) sleep, on average, 2 hours more per day.
D) have less predictable sleep schedules.
Research on environmental influences on gender typing shows that preschool teachers
A) tend to negotiate more when boys misbehave, coming up with a joint plan to
improve behavior.
B) use more disapproval and controlling discipline with girls than with boys.
C) seem to expect girls to misbehave more often than boys.
D) give girls more encouragement than boys to participate in adult-structured activities.
Which of the following statements about late-life marital discord is true?
A) Older adults are less likely than younger adults to say that their partner makes too
many demands.
B) Men tend to expend more energy trying to work on a troubled relationship.
C) Women often protect themselves from the energy drain of a troubling relationship by
avoiding discussion.
D) When marital dissatisfaction exists, it often takes a greater toll on women than on
men.

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