Book Title
Essentials of American Government: Roots and Reform 2012 Election Edition 11th Edition

SOC 84459

July 16, 2017
If proportional representation primaries are fairer to the public, why might some state
parties choose not to adopt them?
a. They are difficult to schedule.
b. They create intra-party competition between candidates.
c. They can lengthen the nomination process.
d. They may require more special interest support to finance.
e. They reward moderate candidates.
In the White House Press Room, which group would you find closest to the podium?
a. wire services
b. radio reporters
c. foreign press
d. bloggers
e. newspaper reporters
In which way do modern presidents differ from the original intentions of the Framers of
the Constitution?
a. Modern presidents are considerably less democratic than the Framers originally
b. Modern presidents have greater power as leaders of their political parties than the
Framers originally intended.
c. Modern presidents are much more influential in the legislative process than the
Framers originally intended.
d. Modern presidents are much less partisan than the Framers originally intended.
e. Modern presidents are more subservient to the will of Congress than the Framers
originally intended.
What did supporters of the New Jersey Plan want to do to the Articles of
a. repeal them
b. replace them
c. strengthen them
d. weaken them
e. maintain them
According to Table 4.1, How Has Selective Incorporation Made the Bill of Rights
Applicable to the States?, which of the constitutional amendments was the first to be
incorporated and applied to the states?
a. Fourth
b. Fifth
c. First
d. Second
e. Eighth
In general, women who vote favor which party?
a. Conservatives
b. Democrats
c. Greens
d. Libertarians
e. Republicans
How and whether judicial decisions are translated into actual policy is known as which
of the following?
a. judicial implementation
b. judicial execution
c. judicial legislation
d. judicial intention
e. judicial power
Why might being a member of a civic group make you more likely to vote?
a. Civic groups have mandatory citizenship participation as a condition of membership.
b. Civic groups provide opportunities to learn important political skills.
c. Civic groups are directly associated with political party mobilization.
d. Civic groups publish informative political newsletters.
e. Civic groups require proof of voter registration as a condition of membership.
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 sought to __________.
a. balance corporate and consumer interests
b. limit opportunities for media consolidation
c. assure candidates of equal time on broadcast networks
d. bring all media to the same legal standards
e. restructure the Federal Communications Commission
If you thought you were getting an inferior public education because of your ethnicity,
which part of the Constitution would you rely on most heavily to justify your case?
a. the First Amendment
b. the Thirteenth Amendment
c. the Fourteenth Amendment
d. the Nineteenth Amendment
e. the Equal Rights Amendment
Congress can exercise influence over foreign policy through its power to __________.
a. command the armed forces
b. appoint the secretary of defense
c. ratify treaties
d. recognize the sovereignty of foreign countries
e. receive diplomats
Congressional whips serve what main function?
a. act as official spokespersons for their chambers
b. help the Speaker schedule proposed legislation for debate
c. meet with members of the executive cabinet
d. persuade party members to toe the party line
e. serve as personal assistants to the majority and minority leaders
Why did Congress pass the Voting Rights Act of 1965?
a. in order to facilitate the prosecution of those who had restricted the voting rights of
African Americans
b. because it was clear that the South had no intention of living up to the spirit of the
Fifteenth Amendment
c. because Congress was afraid the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. would lead a
boycott of white businesses if the legislation was not passed
d. to prevent the race riots from spreading from African American neighborhoods into
traditionally white neighborhoods
e. the Supreme Court had determined that only the national government could regulate
Which of the following emanates from a "penumbra" and not an explicitly stated
constitutional right?
a. the right of a person to have access to contraceptives
b. the free speech rights of children at school
c. the prohibition on school prayer in public schools
d. the right of religious schools to be free from state taxes
e. the right of children to have a lawyer at juvenile court proceedings
Which of the following situations would most likely be a violation of Title IX?
a. an election jurisdiction that does not provide bilingual ballots when there is a large
bilingual community
b. a legal prohibition on hiring women for positions that are known to be hazardous to
women's reproductive health
c. a college that spends significantly more on sports programs for men than for women
d. job applications that are not made accessible to the blind
e. an employer who systematically pays women less than men for doing comparable
How does the institutional weakness of political parties affect voter turnout?
a. parties can only use grassroots mobilizing to get voters to the polls
b. parties do not have the staff to work at polling stations
c. voters are distant from and do not identify with weak parties
d. parties are subject to capture by special interests
e. parties do not have money to buy media ads to mobilize voters
The most dominant feature of traditional media coverage of campaigns is __________.
a. coverage of the "horse race"
b. issue analysis
c. candidates' personal lives
d. analysis of debates
e. fundraising events
Which of the following statements best describes the president's influence over agency
a. The president has final say over all department budgets, but has no control of the
budgets of independent agencies.
b. The president has final say over the budgets of independent agencies, but has no
control of department budgets.
c. The president has sole authority to determine executive administrative budgets.
d. The president has no authority in the budgeting process.
e. The president influences the initial budget proposal, but depends on Congress for
appropriations of federal money.
Which institutional resource is closest to the president?
a. Executive Office of the President
b. White House staff
c. the Cabinet
d. the vice president
e. Joint Chiefs of Staff
Which of the following is true of Social Security benefits?
a. Benefits under Medicare Part A are automatic when a person qualifies for Social
b. Benefits under Medicare Part B are automatic when a person qualifies for Social
c. Benefits under Medicare Part D are automatic when a person qualifies for Social
d. Benefits under Medicare Part A, B, and C are automatic when a person qualifies for
Social Security.
e. Benefits must be requested and are never automatic.
In matters of religion, the free exercise clause protects individuals from which of the
a. discrimination
b. persecution
c. governmental intrusion
d. segregation
e. dissenting opinions
Which of the following is an element of a political party's organization at the state
a. activists and volunteers
b. congressional district committees
c. identifiers and voters
d. national committee
e. precinct and ward committees
Which of the following is accurate with regard to the national debt?
a. The national debt as a percentage of GDP has drastically increased in recent years.
b. The national debt as a percentage of GDP has not changed in the past decade
c. The national debt is a product of balanced federal budgets.
d. The national debt is not affected by external events such as war or a natural disaster.
e. The national debt has only increased under Democratic presidents.
During World War I, the Supreme Court upheld the Espionage Act by ruling that
Congress has a right to restrict speech that __________.
a. is critical of the government
b. is a prior restraint
c. creates a clear and present danger
d. qualifies as hate speech
e. is symbolic but obscene
Following oral arguments, the justices gather for a __________, during which they
discuss the case and cast preliminary votes.
a. conference
b. meeting
c. hearing
d. review
e. circuit
Prior to the ratification of the Constitution, the United States was governed by the
Articles of __________.
a. Confederation
b. Declaration
c. Federalism
d. Independence
e. Unity
Which is a primary reason that news cameras are not allowed in the Supreme Court?
a. the Court Exclusivity Act of 1921
b. to create an exclusive environment
c. New York Times Co. v.U.S.
d. to avoid politicization of Court activity
e. the Telecommunications Act of 1996
Which circumstance creates a challenge to the implementation of federal laws?
a. when Congress passes a law that contains ambiguity
b. when Congress calls agency heads to testify at formal hearings
c. when functions are transferred to the private sector
d. when each chamber of Congress is controlled by a different party
e. when the president belongs to a different party than the majority party in Congress
Why was the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unsuccessful?
a. The states of the former Confederacy did not abide by any of the laws passed by
Congress prior to 1894.
b. Congress did not have the authority to enact legislation in the South during the Civil
c. The Civil Rights Act of 1875 was only concerned with discrimination on the basis of
d. The Supreme Court said that private citizens could chose not to provide public
accommodations on account of race.
e. The Supreme Court said that governments could chose not to provide public
accommodations on account of race.
The power of both the state and federal governments to levy taxes is an example of
__________ federalism.
a. layer cake
b. marble cake
c. pineapple upside down cake
d. cupcake
e. pancake
Aside from the First Amendment, what portion of the U.S. Constitution deals with the
relationship between the state and religion?
a. Article III
b. Article VII
c. Article VI
d. Article XIII
e. Article IX
What is the principle that each branch of the federal government has the means to
thwart or influence actions by other branches of government?
a. weights and measures
b. checks and balances
c. balances and powers
d. checks and freedoms
e. freedom and power
What was the policy of containment? How did it influence U.S. foreign policy in Cuba
and Vietnam?
What was the primary reason that colonists settled in America? Referring to Figure 1.1,
discuss the establishment of at least two specific colonies.
Consider the "Take a Closer Look" box. Why is interagency cooperation needed to
address the problem of homelessness? What specific challenges is the U.S. Interagency
Council on Homelessness likely to face?
In order to make it hard for poor blacks to vote without falling afoul of the Fifteenth
Amendment, many southern states required citizens to pay __________, which
disproportionately disenfranchised African Americans.
The idea that the president may be advised by executive branch officials in confidence
without the advice becoming public is called __________.
The United States has __________ times as many elections as other western
Outline a possible diplomatic solution to a foreign policy crisis involving North Korea's
nuclear program. How difficult would it be for the United States and North Korea to
reach such a solution?
In the post-World War II era, a weakening of the party system gave rise to __________.
Studies of political socialization have shown that __________ is/are the single greatest
influence(s) in establishing a person's political identity.
Article III guarantees that the __________ of federal judges will not be reduced during
their service on the bench.
Keynesians in Congress would support increasing ___________ as a means to address
high levels of unemployment.
The __________ had its roots in the ARPANET project.
What role does an issue network play in the modern bureaucracy?
Under Roe v.Wade, a woman could legally seek an abortion freely during her
__________ trimester.
Referring to Figure 1.3, discuss why the labels of "conservative" and "liberal" may be

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