Book Title
Essentials of American Government: Roots and Reform 2012 Election Edition 11th Edition

SOC 54581

July 16, 2017
If you were running a general election campaign, at what point in the campaign would
you want to recruit extra volunteers for canvassing?
a. during the nomination period
b. just before your state's primary
c. during the summer before the election
d. for the period one month before the election
e. on election day
During the height of the Cold War, what would the United States likely have done if it
had discovered that the Soviet Union had previously unknown stockpiles of nuclear
a. negotiate a bilateral trade agreement
b. engage in a military conflict with the Soviet Union
c. stockpile additional nuclear weapons in the United States
d. withdraw from NATO
e. extend diplomatic immunity to the Soviet Union
In an oligarchy, rule is by which of the following?
a. the many
b. the few
c. one person
d. property owners
e. all the people
Which of the following is a reason for the separation of powers?
a. to ensure the power of the executive
b. to promote justice
c. to prevent tyranny by any one branch
d. to create gridlock in government
e. to improve international relations
Which of the following would indicate that the economy is experiencing inflation?
a. Interest rates are increasing.
b. Goods are becoming less expensive.
c. The federal government is lowering tax rates.
d. The Federal Reserve is increasing the money supply.
e. The federal tax rates are increasing.
The policy of containment is evident in the U.S. involvement in the __________, which
involved confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over the
deployment of nuclear missiles in North America.
Free trade agreements are designed to prevent which of the following?
a. globalization
b. democratic enlargement
c. dtente
d. protectionism
e. isolationism
The U.S. Constitution was adopted in response to the weaknesses of the Articles of
a. Unity
b. Revolution
c. America
d. Democracy
e. Confederation
The Bill of Rights is made up of the first __________ amendments to the U.S.
a. three
b. five
c. seven
d. ten
e. twelve
How has U.S. foreign policy in Iran and North Korea been similar for much of the past
a. It has been largely focused on economic development.
b. It has been largely driven by the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.
c. It has been largely determined by the wealth of natural resources the countries
d. It has emphasized diplomacy over military action.
e. It has been driven by the threat the countries pose to the United States.
Why do interest groups typically offer material benefits to their members?
a. to foster greater diversity among group members
b. to encourage only the most committed supporters to become involved
c. to distract members from the groups' political motives
d. to discourage members from joining more than one interest group
e. to overcome the free rider/collective action problem
Which of the following laws would be the most likely to draw strict scrutiny from the
Supreme Court when determining its constitutionality?
a. Male and female student athletes cannot compete on the same basketball team at the
university level.
b. Businesses cannot discriminate against gays and lesbians in hiring and promotion
c. Those without a college degree are not eligible for upper-level civil service jobs.
d. African Americans and whites must be given equal access to the public school
system, including extracurricular activities.
e. Government contracts must be awarded to a contractor who is a racial minority
whenever at least 10 percent of the bidders are minority-owned businesses.
Which clause of the U.S. Constitution did the Supreme Court interpret in McCulloch
a. Commerce
b. Dormant Commerce
c. Due Process
d. Equal Protection
e. Supremacy
How do interest groups lobby the executive branch?
a. by filing lawsuits
b. by appearing at administrative hearings to offer information
c. by offering political action committee (PAC) contributions to agency heads
d. by filing amicus curiae briefs
e. by drafting and introducing bills
The Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. insisted that civil disobedience aimed at ending
discrimination in the South should be conducted __________.
a. in accordance with the law
b. nonviolently
c. secretly
d. anonymously
e. with all deliberative speed
Which clause in the Constitution ensures that judicial decrees and contracts made in one
state will be binding and enforceable in another?
a. Commerce
b. Dormant Commerce
c. Due Process
d. Equal Protection
e. Full Faith and Credit
Congress and the president share which of the following powers over agencies and
departments in the federal bureaucracy?
a. the power to influence budgets
b. the power to issue executive orders
c. the power to sign executive agreements
d. the power to hold oversight hearings
e. the power to use inspectors general
Which clause prevents the national government from sanctioning an official religion?
a. establishment
b. free exercise
c. full faith and credit
d. equal protection
e. due process
Deep Throat of the Watergate scandal was which kind of journalistic source?
a. on the record
b. off the record
c. on background
d. deep background
e. press release
Inflation is best understood as the rate at which __________.
a. gross domestic product expands
b. prices for goods and services decrease
c. prices for goods and services increase
d. the federal government increases taxes to raise revenue
e. the Federal Reserve Board expands the money supply
What was the dominant model of federalism in the 1950s?
a. cooperative
b. dual
c. progressive
d. republican
e. unified
The __________ Mandates Reform Act of 1995 prevented Congress from passing
costly federal programs without a debate about how to fund them.
a. Cost
b. Commercial
c. Funded
d. Saving
e. Unfunded
In a process known as __________, presidents generally allow senators from the state
in which a judicial vacancy occurs to block the nomination.
a. advice and consent
b. presidential deference
c. judicial review
d. senatorial courtesy
e. Senate confirmation
Why was the North Atlantic Treaty Organization formed?
a. to provide peacetime collective security for the United States and Western Europe
b. to promote free trade between the United States and Western Europe
c. to help rebuild war-torn Europe after World War II
d. to enhance democratic government in newly industrializing countries
e. to minimize nuclear proliferation
Which of the following generally favored a strong national government and supported
the proposed U.S. Constitution?
a. Tories
b. Whigs
c. Federalists
d. Anti-Federalists
e. Constitutionalists
To which of the following might political action committees (PACs) invest their
contributions in order to maximize their political influence?
a. members of the minority party in Congress
b. campaigns of challengers
c. campaigns of incumbents
d. presidential candidates only
e. candidates for state and local offices only
The Alien and Sedition Acts are an example of what kind of law?
a. violation of free speech
b. prior restraint
c. content-based
d. civil
e. criminal
The Supreme Court has used selective incorporation to __________ the rights of states.
a. protect
b. limit
c. expand
d. define
e. enforce
Which is an exception to the equal time rule?
a. News stations may deny candidates equal time to speak during debates.
b. News stations may exclude third party candidates from debates.
c. News stations may refuse to sell advertisement time to bigoted candidates.
d. News stations may report news stories about candidates unequally.
e. News stations may sell advertisement time to the highest bidder.
What is a government program called that provides benefits to all citizens who meet
eligibility requirements?
a. a basic program
b. an entitlement program
c. an envelopment program
d. a minimum program
e. a recessionary program
Why was the Twenty-Fifth Amendment to the Constitution adopted?
a. to clear up ambiguities over the constitutional provisions surrounding presidential
powers to conduct war
b. to clear up ambiguities over the constitutional provisions surrounding the role of the
vice president should the president die or become incapacitated
c. to clear up ambiguities over the constitutional provisions surrounding the president's
powers to negotiate treaties
d. to clear up ambiguities over the constitutional provisions surrounding the separate
election of the vice president
e. to clear up ambiguities over the constitutional provisions surrounding the separation
of powers between the executive branch and the legislative branch
Which of the following is a problem presented by the Electoral College?
a. Career politicians have a natural advantage over outsiders.
b. It favors Republicans over Democrats historically.
c. It is too democratic and violates the intentions of the Framers.
d. Small states are underrepresented.
e. The winner of a popular vote can still fail to be elected.
U.S. monetary policy involves which of the following?
a. import and export policies
b. interest rates and the money supply
c. supply-side economics
d. NAFTA and the balance of trade with Canada
e. the national debt and the annual deficit
How does lobbying the executive branch differ from lobbying Congress?
a. Fewer interest groups lobby Congress than lobby the executive branch.
b. Fewer interest groups lobby the executive branch than lobby Congress.
c. Lobbying the executive branch has less impact on government than lobbying
d. Lobbying the executive branch focuses more on rule making, whereas lobbying
Congress focuses more on pending legislation.
e. Lobbying the executive branch focuses more on pending legislation, whereas
lobbying Congress focuses more on elections.
Given that members of Congress often lack technical expertise in particular policy
areas, they depend on lobbyists to supply them with __________.
The federal government uses fiscal policy when it raises ___________.
In a perfectly apportioned system, no citizen's vote weighs more than another's. The
U.S. Senate is one of the most malapportioned representative bodies in the developed
and democratized world. What accounts for this? Does this jeopardize American
democracy or facilitate it? Why?
Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution says, "The President, Vice President, and all
Civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for,
and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high crimes and Misdemeanors." Explain
what this means. What would your criteria be for impeachment?
If you were a Protestant, how might your voting behavior differ from your friends of
other religious faiths? To what extent is faith an accurate predictor of voting habits?
__________ is the coherent set of values and beliefs people hold about the purpose and
scope of government.
Common Cause, an organization that pushes for openness and fairness in government,
is an example of a(n) __________ group.
How has the structure of the presidential cabinet changed since its origin?
The privileges and immunities clause guarantees that each citizen of a state is
guaranteed the same __________ as citizens of other states.
How does the clear and present danger test operate?
Name and describe three common methods used by public opinion researchers to
contact survey respondents. Compare the strengths and weaknesses of each.
Discuss the role of political action committees (PACs) in terms of their influence on
elections and the extent to which they shape government policy.

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